Miss Mary Hooper Books

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Nelson's Home Comforts - Little dinners - Cookery For Invalids - Every Day Meals - Hints on Cookery Good Plain Cookery - Handbook For The Breakfast Table - Weekly Telegraph Cookery Book - Our Dog Prin - Ways and Tricks of Animals

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...preface from Every Day Meals. Victorian Recipes

The gratifying reception which has been accorded to my books on cookery, and especially to “Little Dinners," has induced me to prepare another handbook, embracing a large number of original recipes which could not be included in the plan of that book. These recipes have all been carefully prepared by me for the use of the Cookery Classes in the Crystal Palace School of Art, Science, and Literature. My aim has been to give clear and simple directions, which may be successfully followed by the most inexperienced cook, and at the same time to show how good results may be obtained by the exercise of economy.

Housekeepers are so well acquainted with the difficulty of providing a varied menu for early breakfasts, that it is hoped the first part of this book may be especially acceptable to them.

There are a number of obstacles in the way of arranging nourishing and suitable breakfasts; but when we consider that it is of the first necessity for those members of a family who have to leave home early in the morning, to do so physically fortified against the fatigues of an anxious day, we shall see that it is as important to provide a nourishing suitable breakfast as a good dinner. The man of business who swallows in haste a breakfast of the accepted national type, which, although sufficiently expensive, is both innutritious and unattractive, and who has no time during the day to supplement this unsatisfactory meal by luncheon, runs great risk of ruining his health. There can be no doubt that many lives now sacrificed to the pressure of the times would be saved, or at least prolonged, were the vital powers more duly sustained during the early part of the day by a good and suitable breakfast.

There is but little variety in the dishes used for breakfast in the majority of English families. "Bacon and eggs again, my dear," sighed a discontented husband; “Well, what can I do?" answered the anxious wife, ''you shall have eggs and bacon by way of change tomorrow.” It is certain that for the same cost as the eggs and bacon sufficient variety could be secured, for fresh eggs in town are always costly, and bacon is also expensive, a great portion of it running to fat, and by the ordinary mode of cooking it is too often rendered hard and indigestible. The same may be said of kidneys, which are gradually rising to the price of unapproachable delicacies. When hardened in cooking, as they often are, they are both wasteful and innutritious, but one kidney, cooked as directed for "kidneys sautes," will go as far in every sense as two dressed in the ordinary way : an example, if one were needed, of the economy of well-prepared food.

Sausages have from time immemorial found favour as a breakfast dish. But that any one should be able to eat those sold in shops after the revelations respecting them, and the great risk there is of getting diseased meat in so disguised a form, is indeed surprising. There is no difficulty whatever in making sausages at home, a mincing machine will last a lifetime, and be so useful for a variety of purposes that no family should be with- out one. Some well-tried recipes for making sausages of all kinds are given, and thus prepared are useful and relishing; articles of diet.

Dried fish of various kinds is much in vogue, and is useful by way of appetiser; but it does not possess the valuable nutritive qualities of the fresh fish, and is not suited to delicate digestions.

Chops and steaks are excellent in their way, but are costly, and from one cause or another often fail to tempt the appetite in the morning. *' Then what are we to have?" cries the perplexed housewife, "everything nice is so expensive, and it is most difficult to make varied and suitable dishes for breakfast.”

To this we must reply that, although the cost of provisions is very great at the present time, and the general cost of living most serious for small incomes, the real difficulty lies, not so much in the expense as in the want of skill in making the most of things, and also in the want of forethought and management. No cooking can be done without taking time and trouble, and it is because our French neighbours spare neither the one nor the other in the exercise of the culinary art, that they so greatly excel in it. If, as the celebrated chef said of his sauce, breakfast "is prepared with brains," it need never be an expensive meal; and if thought is taken to-day for tomorrow's breakfast, it may be got up with but little expense, at an early hour, and be both suitable and economical.

A few menus have been arranged for simple every-day breakfasts, all of which can without difficulty be served at an early hour. These menus may serve as models for others, for which a number of supplementary recipes will be found elsewhere in the book, under the head of "Little Dishes.'' The breakfasts of children, school-boys and girls, which should be as varied as is consistent with simplicity, are often unduly restricted, and bread and butter, not because it is the least expensive, but because it is the least trouble, is held to be the proper thing to satisfy the needs and appetites of growing children. Attempts have been made by dieticians to induce English people to use oatmeal more freely. But these efforts have met with but partial success, owing to the inferior character of the meal usually sold, and to the still more inferior mode in which it is cooked. Properly prepared porridge is not only highly nutritious, but a generally acceptable form of diet, and if accustomed to it from infancy, there are very few children who will not eat it. It may be taken as a general rule that when children manifest a dislike to oatmeal porridge it is on account of its being badly prepared. By far too much meal is used by English cooks, and they do not boil it long enough to render porridge easy of digestion. The preparations of Italian wheat “the grano duro” which is different from Indian corn, and possesses a high degree of nourishment, semolina, macaroni, and similar pastes, do not find the favour with us which they deserve. People dislike these things as they do oatmeal, because they are not properly prepared for table. Here, again, is a serious loss to the national dietary from the indifferent style of our cookery.

The important question of reducing the quantity of animal food, having due regard to the necessity of maintaining a high standard of health and strength in the community at large, has been anxiously considered. There can be no doubt that it is desirable from every point of view to make such additions to the plain joint of the family fare as will supply the requisite nourishment, and tend at the same tine to diminish the need for the large proportion of animal diet now used. Such useful additions to the family mid-day meal are soup and broth, such as appear on every Continental table.

Is it not strange that soup, which is held by our neighbours to duly prepare the stomach for its more onerous duties, and to assist in assimilating the heavier food, should be thought by us to have the directly opposite effect? Perhaps the most common objection to soup by the English people is, that it spoils the appetite ; but if the appetite is satisfied with suitable food, this ought to be regarded as an advantage. Then another objection is, that soup is expensive, and that it is troublesome to make it.

The recipes and directions which are given under this head will, it is hoped, enable housekeepers to provide this valuable addition to the family fare with but little expense and trouble.

With the view of rendering this book generally useful, a series of menus for family dinners, such as are suitable for the children and for family luncheons, has been arranged. These comprise such dishes as come under the head of "plain cookery," and every hint which may render the recipes useful to the inexperienced housekeeper has been given.

In most families, from time to time, there are occasions when it is necessary to serve luncheons of ceremony, suppers, or additional delicacies. To meet these requirements there are given a number of recipes, both for sweet and savoury dishes, all prepared with regard to economy, and a great proportion of them by new and easy methods. The cold dishes under this head will also be for the most part suitable for high tea, and the hot dishes will be found light and digestible enough to serve for little suppers.

My former success encourages me to hope that this new book, on which my best efforts have been expended, will be widely useful. My recompense will be great if it prove a real help to those who, in these difficult times, are seeking to raise the standard of housewifely perfection, and by their own example to show that the best work a woman can do is that in the home, and for the well-being of the family.

 

MARY HOOPER

 

Hints On Economical Cookery, Etc., Etc

It has been so often repeated that the English cook is not only the worst but the most wasteful in the world, that the fact has come to be accepted as a sad and certain truth for which there is no remedy. But to sit down submissively under any evil is not worthy of our national character, and already ladies, by a diligent study of cookery and dietetics, are seeking to inaugurate a better law for our kitchens.

In the first place it should be understood that a good cook is always economical. It may be that for some dishes she may have to use expensive materials, and to reject all but the finer portions of such materials, but in no case will she allow any trimmings, boilings, or skimmings to be thrown away or left to spoil for want of thought or attention. By the exercise of her skill, these often "unconsidered trifles" may be so acceptably utilized, that the cost of a superior dish will be reduced to that of an ordinary one. Waste and perquisites are the two giant evils which lie at the root of our extravagant and inferior cookery, and it is in the interest both of good mistresses and good servants that both should be checked.

One of the most useful and acceptable forms of cookery - frying - suffers in all middle-class kitchens in a large degree from the institution of the grease-pot and the perquisite of dripping. The latter perquisite tempts the cook systematically to overroast joints, for besides the dripping thus obtained, when meat is overroasted more gravy goes into the pan, and dripping with this rich and valuable deposit of fine jelly fetches a higher price, and is highly esteemed by the people who purchase it at the shops. Thus the housewife is robbed not only of the dripping, but of the nutriment of her meat, and when anything has to be fried further suffers from the greed of the cook, who appropriates all the fat she possibly can as a lawful perquisite. In families of from four to six persons, living in a fairly generous manner, there should always be plenty of frying fat obtained from roasted meat and pot skimmings without buying any lard. And it ought to be more generally known than it is that clarified pot skimmings make the best frying fat. The most delicate things, croquettes, rissoles, fritters, and potatoes, can be exquisitely fried in clarified pot top or dripping, as is constantly shown at the Crystal Palace school. If the frying fat is at the proper temperature no taste of it will be communicated to the substance immersed in it.

The process of clarifying fat for frying is very simple. Remove any deposit of gravy - and this should always be done within two days after the dripping is made, as such gravy is precious and is apt to become sour if left too long - then break up the dripping into small pieces, and put it into a large pan. Pour over the dripping at least three pints of boiling water to a pound, stir until dissolved, and then set the pan aside until the next day. Remove the dripping in one piece, scrape the under side and dry it well in a cloth, put it into a deep baking dish and set it on the range - not in the oven - at a low heat and let it melt; when again cold, take the dripping out of the dish, wipe and put it away wrapped in sheets of paper. Pot skimmings are to be treated in exactly the same way, and will be found the best possible frying fat. If frying fat has to be bought it is best on all accounts to prepare it at home. Procure mutton suet, cut it into shreds, put it into a clean saucepan and let it melt slowly; when done strain it into a basin, let it stand until cold, and treat in the same manner as dripping.

No fried things are wholesome, unless thoroughly immersed in fat at such a temperature as will effectually prevent their becoming sodden, nor, indeed, can frying be successfully done in any other way. Thus it will be seen how important it is that all household fat should be carefully saved, and how great an advantage it is to a cook always to have a store of it. Fat can with a little management be used several times for frying, and it is an error to suppose that when used for frying fish, it is not afterwards fit for any other purpose. The thermometer is the most exact, as it is the most scientific way of determining temperature, yet there is not the least difficulty in coming to a right conclusion by the use of the ordinary domestic test. Persons accustomed to frying will know without testing when the fat is ready, but under the slightest doubt will plunge a piece of dry bread into it. If the bread takes a brown tinge instantly, the fat will be ready. Should a slight smoke arise from the fat it must be used at once, or be taken off the fire. The practice of throwing in parsley or drops of water to ascertain the temperature of fat cannot be approved, for if incautiously done when the fat is very hot, the slight explosion thus caused may result in scalding the hands of the operator, and in making splashes of grease on the range. A careful cook who conducts the operation of frying on proper principles will never incur this last misfortune, and will not, as inexperienced cooks constantly do, dread having to fry when she has "that morning blackleaded her range." The obvious cause of fat "spluttering" is that it contains water, and if unclarified dripping or frying fat is used over again, it may, because of other substances mixed with it, have the same unpleasant consequence, besides causing a most disagreeable odour throughout the house. Let it, then, be borne in mind that the success of frying depends on having clean, dry fat, and plenty of it, and in taking care that the temperature of the fat is that which has been indicated.

It is essential for a cook to observe that different kinds of fat come to the right heat for frying at different temperatures. Lard boils much sooner than beef or mutton fat, and vegetable oil sooner than either of these; and unless care is taken in using the latter, accidents may occur.

On turning to the subject of stock, economical gravies, and soups, we shall not fail to recall the great trouble of Mrs. Todgers' life - "the gravy;" how she declared "that the anxiety of that one item keeps the mind continually on the stretch." Very many housewives will sympathize with this anxiety, having too often to go without gravy, or submit to joints of meat being sent to table washed over with water flavoured with burnt sugar. The writer has seen a so-called "professed" cook mix a little browning and salt in boiling water, and pour it over the joint of meat just before sending to table, yet with a little knowledge on the part of the mistress, with a little forethought and care on the part of the cook, a good household gravy will never be wanting even in a small family.

"How was it, cook, we had no gravy with the beef yesterday?" inquires the lady of the house.

"Why, ma'am, you said you would not allow gravy meat; and, of course, I couldn't make it out of nothing!"

The mistress, ignorant of the excellent use to which small scraps and bones can be put, or that, failing better material, a pint of tasty gravy can be made from the broth of any boiled meat, rabbit, or poultry, with two onions fried brown, a bacon bone, and, if at hand, a morsel of turnip or dried mushroom, sighs, gives way to the cook's superior tactics, goes without gravy, or provides expensive meat for it.

The liquor in which a leg of mutton or lamb, a fowl, or rabbit has been boiled, will, with the addition of a little colouring, be good enough for the gravy of roasted meats, and a careful cook can always make it additionally nice by adding the rich gravy from beneath the dripping from joints previously roasted. And besides the use for stock and gravies, these boilings of meat are invaluable for soup making. With the addition of a few vegetables, a soup can be made which will have more flavour than that generally served abroad, and which may satisfy the most fastidious eater. Perhaps there is no more delicious broth than that in which a rabbit weighing from two to three pounds and a pound of bacon have been boiled, and it is readily converted into mulligatawny or Palestine soup, and no expense beyond that of the vegetables, seasoning, and milk need be incurred.

Many cooks throw away all the water in which vegetables and fish have been boiled, under the impression that it is useless. But in towns where vegetables are expensive, every drop of liquor from all vegetable roots should be used as flavouring for soups and gravies, or as stock in which to boil or stew meat or fish. The liquor in which fish has been cooked should be reserved for a similar purpose, it will keep a long time, even in summer, if boiled every day, and this is an important matter to observe when necessary to keep stock, gravy, and soup of any kind. It will sometimes happen that even carefully-made soup will require some additional flavour, and this may be given by adding a little of any piquant sauce, a few drops of essence of anchovies, or a spoonful of homemade mushroom catsup. As a rule bought catsup should be avoided, the flavour can readily be obtained from the dried Italian mushroom. Always keep these, a packet of prepared vegetables, and a little home-made glaze in store, and you can at a very short notice serve an economical and good soup. In many cases a pinch of castor sugar is a useful addition, and it will be found in some degree to lessen the bitterness caused by a burnt bone or over-fried onion, also if the soup is over salt it may be used by way of remedy. In all soups for children and those in which vegetables predominate a little sugar should be used.

The practice adopted by many cooks of keeping the stock pot always on the range, and of adding bones and trimmings as they come to hand, is not good. Stock should be made every day in a large, and twice a week in a small family. When the stock has boiled four or five hours, all useful nutriment will have been extracted from the materials used; it should then be strained and allowed to get cold in order to remove all the fat. The pot should be duly and thoroughly cleansed, both inside and out, and then be put away for future use; and be it observed that no good soup of any class can be made in any but scrupulously clean utensils, and that no stock pot which will soil a clean cloth when rubbed inside is fit for use.

When vegetables are required merely for flavouring soup, they should be allowed to boil only until tender; after that time they do but absorb the flavour of the meat. Many cooks throw away the vegetables which have been used in soup making, but this wasteful, thoughtless practice is very much to be condemned. The vegetables which have been used for flavouring will not only have served that purpose, but have been thereby rendered more valuable and nourishing. If not required for use the day on which the soup is made they should be put aside, and made into some useful dish for the next day; but if not convenient to rewarm them, cold vegetables may be made into excellent salads, and thus serve to give inexpensive nourishing variety to the ordinary fare.

There is even a greater prejudice in England against fish than vegetable soup. Both are popularly held to be devoid of nourishment - to be weak and watery and apt to disagree with the stomach. That these errors are as grave as they are widespread need not be demonstrated here, and it will be sufficient to say they tend to that serious waste of good nourishment to which we have before alluded.

Fish soup may be made at a very small cost by carefully utilizing the liquor in which the fish has been cooked. This, with the addition of vegetables, flavouring matters, milk or cream, flour and bread, will make as delicious a soup as need be. How much better would it be if the working man, for instance, would have a basin of such soup for his breakfast, instead of innutritious and watery tea. How good, too, for children in towns, where milk is so poor and costly, would a daily meal of fish and vegetable soup be.

When cod-fish has been used for dinner, some such recipe as the following might be tried for soup the next day:-

When the fish comes from table, remove any flesh from the bones and put it away for future use. Then put the bones with any skin there may be into the liquor in which the fish was boiled, with a turnip, a carrot, three or four onions, a slice of bread toasted brown but not blackened, and later, a little celery, half-a-dozen peppercorns, and a tiny bit of mace. Let all this boil for two hours, or until the vegetables are perfectly tender. Take out the fish bones, rub the vegetables through a sieve to a smooth pulp, boil up the soup, and to each quart add a dessertspoonful of flour and a teaspoonful of potato flour mixed smooth in a quarter of a pint of milk or water. Stir over the fire until thickened, add a teaspoonful of essence of shrimps or of anchovies, a teaspoonful of vinegar or two of lemon juice, and serve. If you will afford it the yolk of an egg will be an excellent addition; it should be stirred in after the soup is thickened.

The addition of half a tin of preserved lobster to three pints of this soup will convert it into one of the first class. If curry is liked, a pinch of the powder may be stirred in with the thickening. In using preserved lobster take care not to boil it, it only requires to stand a few minutes in the hot soup.

Although the preserved soups now so largely sold are somewhat too expensive and too rich for family fare, those of the best makers, which there is reason to believe are perfectly pure and wholesome, may, with the addition of household broth, be often used with advantage. The exigencies of the manufacture of preserved soup render it impossible to use sufficient vegetables, therefore the addition of these in considerable quantities with broth or water in equal proportion with the soup, are in all respects desirable. For a quart of mock-turtle soup make an equal quantity of broth thus :- Boil three or four large onions, a large turnip, a small carrot, and half a stick of celery, all minced, in three pints of any household stock or of the water in which bacon has been cooked, or of plain water. When the vegetables are tender, rub them to a pulp, and add this and the broth to the mock-turtle, let all get slowly hot together, and when it boils stir in a large teaspoonful of French potato flour mixed smooth in a little water, let it simmer one minute longer, add pepper and salt and a few drops of colouring if necessary; put a wine glass of sherry and the juice of half a lemon into the tureen, pour the soup on to these and serve. Gravy and other soups should be treated in the same manner, and thus the cost of a really good soup for a party will be moderate. It is important in all tinned provisions, to have those only of trustworthy makers, and the names of Moir and Sons, or those of Hogarth and Co., are a sufficient guarantee for the excellence of the articles supplied by them.

The soups of the Soceite Generate des Potages Econo-miqiies are excellent, and used as above directed will suit the English taste.

With respect to first class soups, made entirely from fresh meat, we would observe they are necessarily expensive, and it is a mistake to suppose that any kind of meat will answer for this purpose. Without denying, however, that good soup can be made from the inferior parts of meat, it is certain that the finer the meat the better the soup. Thus, buttock steak will make a far more delicious soup than shin of beef, and when we calculate the cost of the bone and sinew, which only give gelatine, the last is not really so much cheaper in the end. The recipe for making clear soups which is accepted as a standard one is, in our judgment, extravagant and needlessly tedious. The proportions are, one pint of water to each pound of shin of beef, and one pint over. The time for making is five hours. After this preliminary process of making the stock, there is that of flavouring with vegetables and of clairfication, a pound more meat being required for two quarts of stock, and one to two more hours being consumed in the finishing process. Probably soup so made will be good, as indeed it ought to be, but a better soup can be made with less expenditure of time and money by simply boiling fine meat and carefully skimming it in the early part of the process, a due proportion of vegetables being added after this is done. When sufficiently boiled, the soup can generally be made perfectly bright by passing it through a fine linen cloth or jelly bag after it has been strained. If from any faults in the management the soup is not clear, it must be clarified with the whites and shells of eggs in the same manner as jelly. If it is desirable to give the soup the gelatinous character of consomme, it can be done by adding isinglass or gelatine before clarification, and from every point of view the result will be more satisfactory than that which is obtained by the long boiling of bone and sinew.

A grand gourmet once said to the writer, "I can predict from my first spoonful of soup the kind of dinner which will follow." No doubt he could - for only a clever cook can make a good soup. Not indeed that there is any difficulty in the matter, but the three qualities which are requisite in a cook must be brought into exercise to insure perfection. First - Cleanliness. Soup will never have a fine appetising aroma if made in vessels which are not scrupulously clean, or if all the materials used are not perfectly fresh and thoroughly cleansed. Secondly - A keen power of observation, in order that the cook may know not only how to choose her materials, but how to prepare them. Thirdly - Attention - so that by ear and smell, as well as by taste, she may know how the cooking proceeds, and when it has gone far enough, for soup boiled too long loses in flavour what it gains in the element which some call "strength".

The serious cost of provisions at the present time renders it imperative that housekeepers should be skilled in the choice of them. It may be a good plan for those who have ample means to deal with tradespeople of acknowledged respectability, and trust them to send good articles, but by so doing the housewife resigns to the purveyor her own prerogative of choice. The system of sending for orders has appeared to save much time and trouble, but under the almost universal adoption of this system butchers have by degrees found it possible not only to substitute young and immature meat for that of prime quality, but to charge the price of the latter for it. It is no less than a duty for people of moderate incomes to market for themselves, and it is one of the means by which the decay of good housekeeping in England may be arrested. Mistakes will doubtless be made in the beginning, but it must be remembered that all experience is worth buying. Written rules for the choice of meat are always difficult to apply, and the eye and touch can only be educated by careful comparison and close observation of form, colour, and characteristics. Hints for the choice of meat and poultry are given under the various heads.

It is very necessary to be a good judge of fish, and as freshness is the most essential point, the observation must first be directed to it. Fish may be kept on ice for a considerable time and still be fit for food, but in such a case is always flavourless. Fresh from market fish is stiff and never cleaned and does not yield readily to the pressure of the finger. Except in stormy weather, when fish is scarce and fishmongers are obliged to keep it from day to day, it ought always to be cheap in the evening, and if the means for preserving it indicated in our recipes are used, it will be perfectly good for the next day.

Bacon is an expensive article unless well chosen. The meat of small pigs is unprofitable in every sense of the word, the lean is hard and indigestible, the fat when broiled runs away, and when boiled lacks that fine flavour and marrow-like quality peculiar to the flesh of full-grown hogs. Good bacon has fine thin skin, is large and plump, the fat white and lard-like when scraped, and there and there tinged with red. The lean is a brilliant red, interlined with threads of fat. The bones of good pork and bacon are large and well developed, and those of the latter are particularly valuable in making soups and gravies, as they yield, without so much salt, all the flavour of ham. Another point to observe in choosing bacon is the aroma imparted to it by the system of curing adopted by the best houses in the trade, and which is never found in inferior brands.

The certainty that butter sold in shops is rarely un-adulterated should make housekeepers very cautious in the choice of it. There are a number of scientific and some simple tests which can be applied for the discovery of the various sophistications and adulterations, but as a rule they take too much time, and in the hands of non-professional analysts must always be attended with some degree of uncertainty. For everyday application we must therefore fall back on simple domestic tests. The presence of too much salt is at once detected by the taste, of water or butter-milk in undue quantity by pressing the butter in a cloth. In good butter very little of these last is obtained by the operation.

A little practice will enable anyone to detect the presence of beef or mutton fat. Butter which contains either of these does not melt so readily as when it is pure. If animal fat is present it is almost certain that when dissolved small pieces of skin will be found in the butter-When pieces of thread are found in dissolved butter, it is a sign it is adulterated with rag pulp.

So little terrors have the Adulterations Acts for the purveyors of butter, that specimens of this, sold lately as the "best fresh," at two shillings the pound, have given to these rough domestic tests unmistakable evidence of the presence of animal fat and rag pulp. When the highest market price is paid for an article it is shamefully fraudulent to sell such substitutions as these, and it is to the lasting disgrace of the English dealers that they have destroyed the trade in pure Dutch butter by sending over to Holland tallow and every description of fat, to be there-refined and returned to this country as butter. This-abominable stuff can be manufactured and sold here at a lower price than pure Dutch butter, and thus one of our most valuable food supplies is diverted, if not altogether lost. We cannot afford to be indifferent in this matter, because butter, in its pure state, and when fresh is a valuable food, and less likely to disagree with the digestive organs than any other fats, and is by far the most agreeable of them to invalids and consumptive persons. The dislike which is usually shown to butter having a rancid taste springs from the fact - even when not known or recognized - that such butter is unwholesome; the peculiar flavour arising from the decomposition, or as some say, fermentation, of the milk remaining in the butter. This flavour can be removed so as to make the butter fit for cooking purposes by clarifying, that is, pouring boiling water on it. When the butter is cold after this operation, it must be broken up, well washed in cold water, and then be melted at as low a heat as possible, after which it must be freed from all moisture, and kept in water slightly salted, and changed every day.

To keep fresh butter sweet, put it into a pan of water, mixing a teaspoonful of tartaric acid to every half-gallon. Change the water once a week, or oftener in very hot weather. It is a great luxury to have butter firm in hot weather, and this can easily be effected by placing over it, on a soup-plate, an inverted flower-pot covered with a cloth, and pouring water on the plate, so that evaporation may constantly go on. Several cheap and good inventions are sold for this purpose, and they save some little trouble and time in their application. Butter which has been exposed to a high temperature is apt to disagree with the digestive organs, and hence many people are afraid to eat sauces and melted butter. But if the method indicated in our various recipes is followed, namely, never to boil sauces after adding butter, they may be eaten without fear, for by merely dissolving it butter does not lose the fatty acids which give it flavour and make it digestible.

The price of butter is now so high that, wherever possible, other fat should be substituted for it. Beef-suet is, not even for families, so much used as it should be, and the reason of this is, that cooks for the most part chop instead of scraping or shredding it. If properly prepared, fine fresh suet may be so used for piecrust, delicate puddings, such as "Bread and Butter," and some others, like "The Beatrice," without anyone being able to detect the flavour. It goes twice as far as butter, and a pudding with an ounce of shred suet will eat as nice as if made of more than two ounces of butter. Beef-suet mixed with an equal quantity of pig's flead (sometimes called leaf), and melted at a low heat, is far better than inferior butter for the nursery and school-room, and the cost about half that of the latter.

At this time, when so much anxiety is felt on the subject of our milk supply, it is well to consider what may be done, at least to render milk harmless. In the milk, as in almost every other provision trade, there has, in London and the suburbs during the last twenty years, been a gradual effort to increase profits at the undue expense of the consumers. In one matter alone, that of cleanliness, expense has been saved by the purveyors of milk. Take what precaution we may, it would seem, we cannot at present defy danger, but we can at least, each one for himself, reduce this danger to a minimum by insisting on a proper water supply, proper dairies, and due cleanliness. The only adulteration to which milk is now generally subjected is that of water, and fraud is further perpetrated by the withdrawal of a portion of the cream from milk sold and charged for as "new." This last fraud is easy of detection by the lactometer, and it would be a useful lesson in domestic chemistry for ladies to become familiar with the use of this instrument, which is a cylindrical glass graduated into one hundred parts, and the milk to be tested must stand in it for ten or twelve hours. Sometimes milk, without being adulterated, when from cows which have been too long in milk, or which are of a poor breed, will give very little cream; but the percentage in any case should never be below six, and it ought to be much higher. The specific gravity of unskimmed milk is 1.030, and the test for the addition of water can only be satisfactorily made by the professional analysts. The admixture of chalk, starch, and annotto with milk is not now largely practised, and the use of the two last would not be open to serious objection if it did not cover one or other of the frauds alluded to.

Starch is employed to give body to, and restore the colour of milk rendered blue by the addition of water, and annotto to give the yellow appearance which may deceive the uninstructed, and induce the belief that the milk is rich. It is of such great importance to the infant and invalid part of the population that milk should be absolutely pure and of good quality, that it is the duty of all persons energetically to endeavour to put down adulteration, and to insist on having the article for which they pay a fair market price, both pure and of good quality.

As the only way to destroy the germs of disease in water is to boil and filter it, so milk can only be rendered safe by boiling. Of course, when milk is supplied from the home farm, when the health of the cows is known to be good, and that no impure water has been added, this precaution is unnecessary. Milk and cream cannot well be kept too cool, and it is a good plan, where there is no suitable place for keeping the milk, to place the vessel in which it is contained in another half filled with water and slightly salted. In hot weather, if the milk has been carried through the streets or sent by railway, it is desirable before boiling to add a pinch of carbonate of soda to it, as this will prevent curdling. This precaution is commonly adopted in America. If cream has slightly turned, a little carbonate of soda and afterwards a pinch of castor sugar stirred in will restore it.

There is, perhaps, no greater difficulty in modern housekeeping than that of insisting on the cleanliness of culinary utensils. Ordinary cooks are very careless in this matter, which in a great measure accounts for the inferior flavour of their dishes. Every lady who is her own housekeeper should make a periodical inspection of the batteire de cuisine, and insist on the absolute purity of every vessel. Copper stewpans will last a lifetime, but when those of tin and iron have been long in use, or have been in any degree neglected, the expense of renewing them should be willingly incurred. A good cook will wash and scour her saucepans after every use of them, and only so can they be kept in such order as will ensure the perfection of her cookery.

Under the head of culinary utensils we would commend to every housewife Captain Warren's admirable pot, but, indeed, after having been before the public for so many years, it is surprising it should need any such commendation. When it is remembered that you have only to put the meat, with any vegetables - such as turnips, carrots, and onions - in one receptacle, the potatoes and a pudding in another - these last, of course, not taking so much time as the meat - put them on the fire, and let the pot continue to boil gently, to find, when the allotted time has expired, an admirably cooked dinner ready for table, it will be seen at once that there is a wonderful economy of time and trouble in using Warren's pot. Nor are these the chief points which will interest a good housekeeper. Meat cooked in Warren's pot has much more savour than when boiled or stewed, and there is absolutely no loss of weight or value in anything which is cooked in it. Captain Warren's pots are made in several shapes and sizes, for meat and vegetables, for fish, and for curries, and are to be procured, of excellent pattern and workmanship, of Constantine, 61, Fleet Street. Each and all of them are on the same principle - that of cooking the several articles for which they are adapted without contact with water or steam. The food is cooked in its own vapour, and none of the nutritious properties are wasted. The outer cylinder contains the water; the meat is placed in an inner receptacle, and, by merely keeping the water at boiling point, is most perfectly prepared for the table. It has been proved, by repeated trials, that meat, fish, and poultry when cooked in Warren's pot retain their nourishing properties, which if either stewed, steamed, or boiled, would be given off in vapour. By this method, the juices become condensed and are returned in moisture sufficient in quantity to cook the viands in the most perfect manner. The steam given off during the cooking is so slight as to be almost imperceptible, and there is absolutely no smell of cooking, even when a large dinner is being prepared in the Warren's pot. It is particularly well adapted for any of the closed ranges now in use, and to gas, a very small ring of which will keep it boiling steadily during the whole time of cooking.

Thus it will be seen that ladies may, in default of a cook, by the aid of a gas stove and Captain Warren's pot, serve a dinner for even a large family almost without previous experience of culinary matters, and certainly without watching and anxiety. The tendency in middleclass kitchens is to have the smallest possible number of utensils, and those of inferior kinds; and it is surprising how slow ladies have been to adopt the many excellent machines and utensils of modern invention which have the threefold merit of saving time, money, and labour.

In "the good time coming" let us hope that the kitchen department will be as carefully arranged as that of the drawing-room, and ladies be as well qualified to judge of the merits of a stove and a labour-saving machine as they now are of the tone of a grand-piano, or a piece of art needlework.

Breakfast: Kidneys Sautes. Rolled Mackerel. Boiled Bacon

Kidneys Sautes

Like many other articles of diet, kidneys within the last ten years have been doubled in price, and are so scarce as to be regarded as luxuries. The method of cooking them generally in use is extravagant, and renders them tasteless and indigestible. Kidneys should never be cooked rapidly, and those persons who cannot eat them slightly underdone should forego them. One kidney dressed as directed in the following recipe will go as far as two cooked in the ordinary manner - an instance, if one were needed, of the economy of well-prepared food.

Choose fine large kidneys, skin and cut them the round way into thin slices, each kidney should yield from ten to twelve slices. Have ready a tablespoonful of flour highly seasoned with pepper and salt and well mixed together, dip each piece of kidney in it. Cut some neat thin squares of streaked bacon, fry them very slowly in a little butter: when done, put them on the dish for serving, and keep hot whilst you saute the kidneys, which put into the fat the bacon was cooked in. Take care the fire is very slow, and that the kidneys cook gently; if done fast they will be hard and indigestible. In about a minute the gravy will begin to rise on the upper side, then turn the kidneys and let them finish cooking slowly; when they are done, as they will be in three to four minutes, the gravy will again begin to rise on the side which is uppermost. Put the kidneys on the dish with the bacon, and pour over them a spoonful or two of plain beef gravy, or water thickened with a little flour, boiled and mixed with the fat and gravy from the kidneys in the frying-pan. If there is too much fat in the pan, pour it away before boiling up the gravy. Serve the kidneys on a hot-water dish.

Rolled Mackerel

Clean the fish, always being careful that the brown substance adhering somewhat closely to the back-bone near the head, and which causes the bitterness often so unpleasant in this fish, is removed.

Take off the head, hold the fish in the left hand, and with the thumb and finger of the right press the backbone to loosen it, then lay it flat on the board and remove the bone, which will come out whole, leaving none behind. Split the fish in half, lay on each piece half the roe (it should be soft), sprinkle over it equally and lightly pepper and salt, and flour, then roll up each piece tightly, tail outwards, and put them in a deep baking-dish, setting them close together, by which means they will keep rolled until cooked. Pour over them a pickle made of vinegar and a fourth part of water, pepper and salt, cover them with a plate, and put to bake in a slow oven for two hours. When done, dish up the fish carefully, strain the sauce over them, and garnish with fennel. They are excellent eaten cold; should be turned in the liquor every day, and they will keep a week.

Boiled Bacon

To boil good mild bacon or ham, put it, after having well washed and scraped it, into hot water, and allow it to boil gently until done. A piece of the back and ribs weighing three pounds will take about an hour and a half. When done, take the pot off the fire, put a cloth under the lid to keep in the steam, and allow the bacon to get cool in the liquor. Remove the skin, and either at once sift raspings over the top, or let the bacon cool and glaze it.

An inexpensive glaze may be made by dissolving an ounce of Nelson's gelatine in half-a-gill of boiling water, and then adding enough colouring to make it a rich brown. Brush over the ham or bacon with this glaze, and, if liked, ornament it with vermicelli stars. Throw the vermicelli into boiling water, and let it boil rapidly for two minutes, then drain it, take each star on the point of a skewer and drop it on to the glaze before it is set. The vermicelli can, if preferred, be used for decorating without boiling it.

Breakfast: Broiled Chicken. Mutton Pies. Boiled Eggs

Broiled Chicken

For this purpose a chicken should be small and young, if otherwise it must be parboiled before broiling. Split the chicken in half and brush over with dissolved butter, and during the cooking occasionally baste with it. Place the chicken, bones to the fire, on the gridiron, and let it remain slowly cooking for twenty minutes, then turn the meat side to the fire, taking care it does not stick to the gridiron, or the skin burn in the least, let it remain ten minutes, then again turn and baste it cleverly with a bit of butter tied in muslin, as thus you can put it equally on the chicken without waste, lightly pepper and salt it, and when it has remained another five minutes (in all thirty-five minutes), serve it very hot.

Mutton Pies

Mince a quarter of a pound of underdone mutton, taking care to have it free from skin and fat. Mix with it a tablespoonful of rich gravy, that which is found under the cake of dripping from a joint is particularly suitable for this purpose, add a few drops of essence of anchovy, a pinch of Cayenne pepper, and a small teaspoonful of minced parsley. If necessary, add salt.

Line your pattypans with puff-paste, divide the mutton into equal portions and put it into the pans, cover each, with a lid of paste, and bake in a quick oven for half-an-hour.

Boiled Eggs

In boiling eggs care must be taken to have them covered with water, otherwise the upper side will be underdone, perhaps almost raw. The eggs must not be put into the water until it boils, and they must not then be allowed to boil too fast. The moment the allotted time has expired, the eggs must be withdrawn from the water. It is a good plan, if the time is taken by the clock, for the cook to say to herself, "they must boil until," for instance, "one minute past number three," or "four minutes past number three," as the case may be; thus the time for taking up the eggs is impressed on the memory, which, if other things engage the attention, is important. New-laid eggs, if to be well set, require to be boiled for four minutes; eggs which have been kept some time take three minutes to set. The eggs of some fowls, and those which have been preserved in lime, have often very thin shells, and are apt to burst when immersed in boiling water. It will generally be found that bursting of the shell will be prevented by putting the eggs into a saucepan of cold water, and allowing it to come slowly to the boiling point. Should the eggs be required lightly cooked, they will be done as soon as the water boils; but if it is desired to have them firm, they should be allowed to remain in the water off the fire for a minute or two.

Breakfast: Spiced Beef. Potato Chips. Eggs Aubernais

Spiced Beef

For ten pounds of meat make the following pickle: - One pound of common salt, two ounces saltpetre, one ounce of cloves, half-an-ounce of allspice, half-a-pound of coarse sugar. Let all these ingredients be thoroughly pounded and mixed together.

Take ten pounds of the brisket of beef, rub it well with this pickle every day for a fortnight. When about to cook, roll it up as tightly as possible and tie it round with string, place it in a deep earthenware pan, with a little stock, or water, and cover the top with suet; let it bake gently for four hours, or it may be boiled. When cold cut the string, and it will retain its form, glaze or cover with raspings.

Potato Chips

Peel fine kidney potatoes, and slice them as thin as you can the round way; as you do the chips throw them into cold water, as this frees them from the potato-flour, which has a tendency to prevent successful frying. Drain and lay them in a cloth to dry, put them into a wire basket, which immerse in a stewpan half-full of boiling fat, and when the chips are a light golden brown, put them between paper in the oven for a minute, turn them on to a dish, sprinkle salt and pepper over, and serve.

The greatest care must be taken to have the fat the right temperature for frying the potatoes, as otherwise they will be sodden with grease.

Eggs Au Bernais

Dissolve a piece of butter the size of a walnut in a stewpan, put a spoonful of gravy and one of milk, break three eggs into it, add pepper and salt, stir them with a wooden spoon over a slow fire until they begin to get lumpy. Then remove the stewpan from the fire, and continue stirring until the eggs are set. Have ready two slices of light bread toasted nicely and spread with butter, to which may be added a little essence of anchovy or anchovy paste. Pour the eggs on to the toast, and serve as quickly as possible very hot.

Effner's condensed egg answers well for this dish, and is especially valuable when fresh eggs are scarce.

Breakfast: Meat Cakes A L'Italienne. Rolled Tongue. Marrow Toast

Meat Cakes A L'Italienne

Mince very fine any kind of cold meat or chicken, taking care to have it free from skin and gristle, add to it a quarter of its weight of sifted bread crumbs, a few drops of essence of anchovy, a little parsley, pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to moisten the whole. Flour your hands, roll the meat into little balls about the size of a half-crown piece, then flatten the balls with the back of a spoon, dip them in egg and in fine bread-crumbs, and fry the cakes in a little butter until lightly browned on the outside. Put them on a hot dish, and garnish with boiled Italian paste.

Rolled Tongue

To pickle the tongue put about half-a-pound of salt on it, let it remain twelve hours, then pour this off, and put a pound of fresh salt. Turn the tongue for three mornings, then add to the pickle an ounce of saltpetre and of bay salt, a teaspoonful of ground cloves and of allspice, and a quarter-of-a-pound of coarse sugar, turn the tongue, and rub the pickle well into it once a day for a fortnight, when it may be cooked. Put the tongue into sufficient hot water to cover it, and let it boil gently for from four to five hours, according to the size and quality. It must be perfectly tender, or it will not press well. Skin, and clear away all bone and gristle from the root of the tongue, which trim neatly, and scrape away any bits made dark by the pickle. Do this as quickly as possible, in order that the tongue may not get cold, hold it in a cloth and roll the tip into the middle, then put it into the collaring tin, and let it remain until the next day, It may then be glazed or not, according to taste.

Marrow Toast

Let the butcher break up a marrow bone. Take out the marrow in as large pieces as possible, and put them into a stewpan with a little boiling water rather highly salted. When the marrow has boiled for a minute,  drain the water away through a fine strainer. Have ready a slice of light toasted bread, place the marrow on it and put it into a Dutch oven before the fire for five minutes, or until it is done. Sprinkle over it a little pepper and salt, and a small teaspoonful of parsley chopped very fine The toast must be served very hot.

Breakfast: Roulades Of Mutton. Brawn. Soused Herrings

Roulades Of Mutton

Remove the fillet from a fine loin of mutton, trim away every particle of skin, fat, and gristle. Flatten the fillet with a cutlet bat, and cut it lengthways into slices as thin as possible; divide these into neat pieces about three inches long. Sprinkle each with pepper, salt, and finely-chopped parsley, roll them up tightly, dip in beaten egg, and afterwards in finely-sifted bread-crumbs, mixed with an equal quantity of flour, and highly seasoned with pepper and salt. As each roulade is thus prepared, place it on a game skewer, three or four on each skewer. Boil an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan, and cook the roulades in it.

Brawn

Remove the tongue and brains from a pig's head, and lay all in salt for one day. Drain away the salt and put fresh, taking care that the head is well covered with it, and especially about the eyes and ears. In three days' time add to the brine a tablespoonful of allspice, black pepper, and crushed saltpetre. Turn the head well about in the pickle for three or four days more, when it will be sufficiently salted to make the brawn.

Boil the head and the tongue until tender, then take the meat from the bones and cut it up as hot as you can. The brains should be tied in muslin and be boiled for half an-hour only. Break them up and mix with the meat of the head. Season the whole with black pepper and allspice, and, if necessary, add salt. Cut up the tongue, after skinning it, in large pieces, and mix it evenly with the meat. Have ready a collaring tin, put in the brawn, set a weight on the top, and allow it to stand until the next day. Kents' Brawn Mould effects the necessary pressure by a regulating screw, and is a great improvement on the old method.

Excellent brawn may be made economically by using only the eye-pieces, ears, tongues, and brains of two heads reserving the cheeks for chaps. The butcher will, if directed to do so, divide the heads in this manner.

Soused Herrings

Choose herrings with soft roes, and take care they are thoroughly cleansed. Fishmongers seldom send them in fit, in respect of cleanliness, for cooking. Lay the fish in an earthenware baking-dish, sprinkle them lightly with pepper and salt, and a very small pinch of allspice, and cover them with vinegar and water in the proportion of one part water to three parts vinegar.

If the flavour is not disliked, a bay leaf and a shalot or a thin shred of garlic may be added to the pickle. Cover the baking-dish closely, and put it in a slow oven for two-hours. Let the fish get cold, wipe each on a clean, dry cloth, lay them on a dish and garnish with green celery tops or water-cress.

Breakfast: Raised Pork Pie. Baked Soles. Omelette Aux Fines Herbes

Raised Pork Pie

Take a pound of meat, fat and lean, from the chump end of a fine fore loin of pork, and cut it into neat dice, mix a tablespoonful of water with it, and season with a large teaspoonful of salt and a small one of black pepper.

To make the crust, boil a quarter of a pound of lard or clarified dripping in a gill and a half of water, and pour it hot on to one pound of flour, to which a good pinch of salt has been added. Mix into a stiff paste, pinch off enough of it to make the lid, and keep it hot. Flour your board, and work the paste into a ball, then with the knuckles of your right hand press a hole in the centre, and mould the paste into a good round or oval shape, taking care to keep it a proper thickness. Having put in the meat, join the lid to the pie, which raise lightly with both hands so as to keep it a good, high shape, cut round the edge with a sharp knife, and make the trimmings into leaves to ornament the lid, and having placed these on, with a rose in the centre, put the pie on a floured baking-sheet and brush it over with yolk of egg. The crust of the pie should be cool and set before putting it into the oven, which should be a moderate heat. When the gravy boils out the pie is done; an hour and a half will bake a pie of this size. Make a little gravy with the bones and trimmings of the pork, it must be strong enough to jelly, and be nicely seasoned with pepper and salt. When the pie is cold remove the rose from the top, make a little hole, insert a small funnel, and pour in as much gravy as the pie will hold, which will be about a gill. Replace the rose on the top, and put the pie on a dish with a cut paper.

If preferred, the pie can be made in a tin mould, but the crust is nicer raised by the hand. A great point to observe is to begin moulding the crust whilst it is hot, and to get it finished as quickly as possible.

Baked Soles

Small soles called "slips" are excellent baked, and are generally to be bought at a reasonable price. Scrape, but do not skin, the soles; dissolve a little butter in a baking tin, pass the white side of the fish through it, sift very fine dry bread-crumbs seasoned with pepper and salt over this, lay the sole black side downward in the baking-dish, and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. If when done the soles are not browned the salamander must be used. As a breakfast dish the soles should be served without any sauce.

Omelette Aux Fines Herbes

Break three eggs into a basin, with a pinch of salt and three dessert spoonfuls of milk or cream, beat them for three minutes, and mix in a small teaspoonful of green parsley, a shred of shalot minced as finely as possible, and, if attainable, a small pinch of green chervil, also minced. Put an ounce of butter into a clean, bright frying-pan, and let remain over the fire until it begins to brown, pour in the omelet mixture, and hold the pan still over a moderate fire for half a minute, then with a fork keep stirring in the middle or at the edges until the omelet is beginning to set over the whole surface, and is taking colour on the under side. Shake round and round until you find the omelet quite loose in the pan, and a nice brown, then slide half of it on to a dish, and with a slight jerk turn over the other half, so as to have the omelet of a neat oval shape. Take care not to cook the omelet too much, it ought to be lightly set on the inner side. An omelet to be successfully cooked should not be more than a minute and a half over the fire; if subjected to too great a heat it will be burned, and if, on the other hand, it be too slowly cooked it will be tough. Some practice will be required to gain proficiency in the art of making omelets, and it is well for beginners not to attempt a larger number than three eggs. The pan should be of a small size for this number of eggs, as the omelet must not be thin like a pancake. Attention is directed to the method of stirring an omelet: if this is done over the whole surface the result will be a hard, leather-like composition; whereas if the omelet-mixture is only gently stirred at the edges, the pan being slightly held on one side to facilitate the operation, it will eat like a light yet solid custard. Nothing can be simpler, when once acquired, than this method of making omelets; it is, however, difficult to describe in writing. The omelet must be served the moment it is done.

Breakfast: Broiled Mackerel. Savoury Eggs. Potted Beef

Broiled Mackerel

When the fish are split open wipe them carefully with a dry cloth, sprinkle them lightly with pepper and salt, and hang them up in a cool place with plenty of air until the next morning. Take care to keep the fish open when you hang them up. When ready to cook the mackerel dissolve half an ounce of butter or bacon fat for each fish, and pass them through it on both sides, lay them on a gridiron over a very slow fire, turn them very frequently, basting now and then with a little butter. When the fish is last turned, sprinkle finely-chopped parsley on the upper side, and serve very hot. The fish must be very slowly cooked, and they will take at least twenty minutes. If put over a fierce fire mackerel is rendered hard and indigestible, and the fish itself is unjustly blamed, but if the above recipe is followed, a most delicious dish will be produced.

Savoury Eggs

Cut up into dice a slice of cold boiled bacon fat and lean, weighing about two ounces. Mix with it a small tea-spoonful of chopped parsley and a little pepper and salt, put this in a shallow tart dish and pour over it three eggs beaten up, with a tablespoonful of milk and one of gravy. Bake in a moderate oven until the eggs are set.

Potted Beef

To make the finest kind of potted meat use steak, take away all skin and sinew, cut the meat into very small pieces and put it into a covered earthenware pot, which place in a saucepan of water or in the oven and let it cook gently until all the gravy is drawn. Pour off the gravy, keep it for future use, and pound the meat in the mortar until perfectly smooth. To each pound of meat put a quarter of a pound of fresh butter or of cold boiled fat bacon pounded in the mortar, two tablespoonfuls of essence of anchovy, a small teaspoonful of pepper and salt to taste. Put the meat into the covered jar as before and let it cook gently until the mass is hot through. When taken up stir occasionally until nearly cold, then press it into little pots, and the next day pour over each, so as effectually to exclude the air, sufficient clarified butter or mutton suet to cover it.

The meat which has been used for making beef tea answers well for potting, and much time and trouble is saved by the use of Kent's Combination Mincer (Topham's patent), instead of the pestle and mortar. This machine by a special action reduces the meat to a fine pulp with great ease and rapidity, and is besides invaluable for all kinds of mincing operations.

Breakfast: Broiled Or Devilled Chicken Legs. Eggs Sur Le Plat. Sheeps' Tongues

Broiled Or Devilled Chicken Legs

For this dish use the legs of either roasted or boiled chicken. Take the skin off the legs, with a sharp knife, score the flesh on both sides of the bone. Mix a small teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of pepper, adding a little cayenne if the broil is required to be hot, with half an ounce of dissolved butter, stir in half a teaspoonful of essence of anchovy. Spread this mixture over the chicken legs, getting it in between the scoring as well as you can. Lay the legs on a gridiron over a slow fire, turning them every minute for ten or twelve minutes. Serve either with toasted bacon, pouring any fat which has run from it over the chicken, or a little dissolved butter.

Chicken legs may also be broiled without using the piquant paste, and in this case should be scored, dipped in bacon fat or butter, and sprinkled with pepper and salt. If properly cooked, broiled chicken will not be the least hardened on the outside, nor will it be in any degree blackened.

Eggs Sur Le Plat

For four eggs put half an ounce of fresh butter, bacon fat, or oil into a tin dish and let it get hot in the oven. Break the eggs one by one into a cup, and drop them carefully so as not to break the yolks, into the dish. Set the dish either on the range or in the oven at a low heat taking care that the cooking proceeds slowly. When the eggs are lightly done they can be transferred to another dish or served on toast. An earthenware dish can be used for cooking instead of one of tin, in which case the eggs will be sent to table on it.

Sheep' Tongues

Strew salt over the tongues and let them lie until the next day, then drain off all that has run from them and put them in the following pickle :- A tablespoonful of salt, half a one of bay salt, a teaspoonful of saltpetre, a pinch of allspice and black pepper. Two days after put a spoonful of sugar. This quantity will be enough for two or three tongues. Four or five days will salt them. Boil them gently until perfectly tender, and when they are skinned, if to be eaten hot, split them down the middle, dip them in dissolved butter and then in fine bread crumbs, and let them brown nicely on the gridiron. If to be served up cold, glaze them. Pigs' tongues are excellent cooked in this manner.

Breakfast: Fondu. Broiled Bacon. Potted Salmon

Fondu

Soak the crumbs of a French roll or about the same quantity of other light bread in a quarter of a pint of boiling milk, beat it up smooth and add to it two ounces of any cold meat minced very fine; a little cold boiled bacon or ham is a great addition, and an onion boiled very soft and beaten to a pulp. Season highly with pepper and salt, and stir in the yolks of two eggs well beaten. Butter a tart dish, and when ready to bake the fondu beat the whites of the eggs to a strong froth and mix together, put it into a hot oven immediately and bake for twenty minutes. Serve with a little good gravy in a boat.

Sausage meat may be substituted for cooked meat, in which case a little more time must be given to bake the fondu. If preferred use a little finely minced parsley instead of the onion.

Broiled Bacon

The best part of bacon for toasting or broiling is that known as the "streaky," and it is best toasted before a clear fire. The slices of bacon should be cut less than a quarter of an inch in thickness, be divided into convenient lengths, and have the rind removed. To have broiled bacon in perfection it must be very slowly cooked, rapid cooking hardens the lean and renders it most indigestible.

It is a common practice with cooks to put slices of bacon into the frying-pan and frizzle them rapidly over the fire, but such a practice is greatly to be condemned. Bacon cannot be thus fried and be good for human food, but it can be most successfully cooked slowly in the frying-pan, or, to use the French term, be saute. The idea that bacon is so fat in itself that it does not require other fat in which to cook it is erroneous, a small quantity of butter, bacon-fat, or lard is absolutely necessary. When the fat is hot put the slices of bacon in the frying-pan, which hold over a slow fire. Turn the bacon repeatedly, taking care there is no sound of frying, but only a gentle movement of the fat. To cook bacon properly in the frying-pan allow from ten to twelve minutes, and do not let it become the least brown.

Potted Salmon

Pick the fish carefully from the bones and pound it to a paste in a mortar. Put it in an earthenware jar, which place in a saucepan of boiling water. As soon as the fish gets hot stir in a fourth of its weight of fresh butter and a little essence of shrimps or of anchovies to heighten the flavour. If necessary add a little salt and Cayenne pepper to taste. Stir the fish occasionally until nearly cold, then press it into small pots, and the next day cover them with clarified butter or other good fat. Any kind of fish can be potted in this way, and will keep for a week or ten days.

Breakfast: Broiled Kidneys. Egg Cutlets. Pigs' Feet A La St. Menehould

Broiled Kidneys

These are quite an epicure's dish, and care must be taken to cook them slowly. Having skinned the kidneys (they must not be split or cut) dip them for a moment in boiling fat, place them on the gridiron over a slow fire, turning them every minute. They will take ten to fifteen minutes to cook, and will be done as soon as the gravy begins to run. Place them on a hot dish rubbed over with butter, salt and pepper them rather highly. It must be understood that kidneys thus cooked ought to be a little underdone, and that when they are cut at table the gravy should run from them freely and in abundance.

Egg Cutlets

These are very good, and if carefully cooked need not be too rich. Cut hard-boiled eggs into thick slices, dip them in the yolk of an egg well beaten, and then in finely sifted bread-crumbs, seasoned with pepper and salt, and a pinch of dried parsley. Have a little butter in the frying-pan; let the eggs cook two minutes on one side, turn them on the other and finish. When taken from the frying-pan lay them before the fire on white paper to absorb the grease. Serve a little thickened gravy round them.

Pigs' Feet A La St. Menehould

If possible get the feet of large bacon pigs, as they make a much better dish than those of small ones. Boil them very gently for ten or twelve hours, or until the bones will slip out easily. If boiled fast the meat of the feet will be hard and broken, whereas if properly boiled they will retain their shape and eat as tender as chicken. If the feet have been salted, let them soak for two or three hours before putting them on to boil in cold water with an onion, bay leaf, and two cloves, and if the feet are fresh, as they should be, with a little salt. When done, divide each down the middle, draw out the long bones, and let the feet get cold. Dip each piece in dissolved butter, and then in very fine dry sifted bread-crumbs. Put them on the gridiron over a slow fire, and let them cook until hot through and the crumbs are nicely browned; they will, of course, require to be turned occasionally. Serve cold. This is the French manner of preparing pigs' feet, and is much superior to that which prevails in this country, and as will be seen, it is the time and trouble given to the preparation of the dish, which convert it from a very humble and indigestible into an elegant and perfectly wholesome one.

Breakfast: Mutton Collops. Potato Snow. Fried Mushrooms

Mutton Collops

Cut neat thin slices from a leg of either roasted or boiled mutton, dip them in yolk of egg, and in fine dry bread-crumbs, to which a little flour, pepper, and salt has been added. Boil enough butter in a small frying-pan to just cover the bottom, put in the slices of mutton, cook them very slowly, first on one side, then on the other until they are brown. Garnish the dish in which the mutton is served with the potato snow, fried potatoes, or potato chips.

Potato Snow

Rub three or four cold white potatoes through a sieve, put them into a stew-pan with a tablespoonful of hot milk or cream and half an ounce of butter dissolved in it. Add a pinch of salt and of white pepper, and stir the potato over the fire until it begins to get dry. Serve piled high on a dish, with the mutton collops round it.

Fried Mushrooms

For this purpose the large black mushrooms are best, and they must be fresh. If quickly grown, the forced will be found as good as the field mushroom; in either case, care must be taken to have them free from grit. Put a good slice of butter or lard into a frying-pan large enough to hold the mushrooms, and, when hot, put them in with the white side downwards, having previously skinned them and trimmed the stalks. Sprinkle pepper and salt over the mushrooms and let them cook very slowly, and if the butter dries up add a little more. In ten minutes turn the mushrooms, and let them finish cooking, still very slowly, on the other side. When done place the mushrooms on a hot dish, pour the gravy over, and garnish the dish with fried bread.

Breakfast: Pressed Ox Cheek. Bloaters. Scalloped Eggs

Pressed Ox Cheek

The whole or a portion of an ox cheek can be used for this purpose, as may be convenient. Thoroughly cleanse the cheek, boil it for ten minutes in water, with a little salt, which pour away, thus ensuring perfect cleanliness. Again cover the head with salted water, and boil an ox heel, or a pound of the rind of pork with it until both are perfectly tender. Take out the bones, chop up the meat, season highly with pepper and salt, - a small quantity of allspice is an improvement - and press the meat into the collaring tin as directed for brawn. The liquor the cheek is boiled in will, with the addition of vegetables, make excellent soup.

Bloaters

To have these in perfection they should not be split open. Care is required to cleanse them properly, and a little practice will enable the cook to succeed in this all-important particular.

In the first place make a very slight cut in the back of the head, which twist off with the fingers, and the intestines will come with it. Hold the bloater under the tap and let the water rush rapidly through it. This done, wipe it dry, put it on a gridiron over a very slow fire, turn it frequently until it begins to smoke, when it will be done.

Scalloped Eggs

Take a cupful of finely-sifted bread-crumbs, moisten them with a little cold milk, cream, or gravy, and season nicely with pepper and salt. Put a thin layer of the moistened crumbs on a lightly-buttered dish, cut two hard eggs into slices and dip each piece in very thick well-seasoned white sauce, or in good gravy made thick enough to adhere to the eggs. Having arranged the slices of egg neatly on the layer of moistened breadcrumbs, cover them with another layer of it, and on the top strew thickly some pale gold-coloured raspings. Bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes. If potatoes are liked they make a nice substitute for bread-crumbs. Take some mashed potatoes, add to them a spoonful of cream or gravy, and proceed as with bread-crumbs - serve gravy with this dish.

Tea

There are few housewives who will admit that they require directions for making tea, and it is indeed surprising that the few simple rules for ensuring a good cup of it are so frequently ignored or neglected. Everyone knows that in order to have tea properly made water must boil, but many persons are ignorant of the fact that water twice boiled, or allowed to continue boiling for several minutes, will not make good tea. The aroma which is so grateful and refreshing in well-made tea is lost when water is employed which, either from being in itself hard, possessing any peculiar property, from being below boiling point, from having been a considerable time on the fire, or having remained boiling for more than a minute, is unsuitable for making tea.

One other cause why tea which is made from good material often tastes flat is that the teapot is not kept clean. It is the practice with many servants from one year's end to another to rinse out the tea-pot after use in the water, often greasy, in which the crockery-ware has been washed, and to put it away without drying the inside. The effect of this practice is to cause a thick incrustation to gather inside the pot, which lovers of tea should know is nothing more nor less than dirty. After each use tea-pots should be rinsed with boiling water, and be thoroughly dried out, the inside being kept as bright as the outside. Earthenware tea-pots are preferable to metal, yet if strict cleanliness be observed there is no objection to the use of the latter. The rule of "a spoonful of tea for each person, and one for the pot," is a good one. Before putting in the tea rinse the pot with boiling water, then somewhat slowly pour on the whole quantity of water required, leaving a little room for the leaves to swell. If the water is poured slowly on the tea as directed, the leaves will not rise to the surface, but should this happen stir well together with a silver spoon. Let the tea stand for at least ten minutes, and, if it has not been previously done, stir once during this interval. Should the water be very hard, a small quantity of soda may be used - it should be added after the water is poured on the tea. Whilst the tea is infusing keep the pot covered with a cozy.

Coffee

The method of making coffee is almost as simple as that of making tea, yet, from neglect of the most ordinary precautions, and the habit of hurrying the operation, failure in it is rather the rule than the exception. Good coffee cannot be made in haste, nor from any but the freshest and best material, and that in sufficient quantity. Whenever possible coffee should be roasted at home, and used within two or three days. There is an admirable machine for this purpose to be had at Kent's, High Holborn. In no case should coffee be ground until required for use, and the first cost of a mill will soon be repaid in the saving effected by it. The kind of berry to be used must depend on individual taste, but that which meets with most general acceptance by true lovers of this beverage is a mixture of Mocha and West Indian or plantation coffee.

Although there are several excellent inventions for making coffee, there is no better pot than that well-known among us, and in general use in France, the ordinary tin or earthenware cafetiere. Among the best patent inventions is one of Kent's, which has a special advantage for making cafe au lait, as milk can be boiled in it whilst coffee is also making. Ashes' Kaffee Kanne also makes very good coffee. As before remarked, good coffee can only be made with a liberal allowance of the raw material. Two ounces to a pint of water will be required to make coffee strong. Put the coffee in the upper part of the cafetiere, and, having placed the piston over it, pour water boiling from the kettle very slowly until you have about half the required quantity. Put the pot in a warm place, or cover with a cozy, and let it stand until all the liquid has drained into the lower pot. Then pour in, still slowly, the remaining quantity of water, and when all has drained through the coffee will be ready; if to be served in another pot, rinse it out with boiling water.

Uninstructed people say that "by boiling all the goodness is got out of coffee." In one sense this is true, for the fine aroma is dissipated by boiling, as well as the properties which render the beverage so refreshing and useful.

The earthenware fire-proof cafetiere is to be had in London at Turner's, 9, Oxford Street.

The advantages of its use are that perfect cleanliness is readily ensured, that coffee may stand and be put away in it without injury to the flavour. Coffee should not be allowed to get cold in any metal pot.

"When milk is required to give the richness to coffee usual in French cafe au lait, put it in a stewpan on a hot plate, let it remain at a heat just below boiling point for half-an-hour, when the watery portions will have evaporated and the milk be reduced to half the original quantity; or, put the milk in a stewpan with Kent's milk saver, by the use of which it cannot boil over, and let it boil gently for ten minutes, or until considerably reduced in quantity.

Cocoa

The best and most digestible beverage is undoubtedly that made from the nibs. These should not be too highly roasted, and it is a good plan to grind or crush them before boiling. A large pot should be kept for the purpose, and always stand on the corner of the range when cocoa is required for daily use.

A much richer beverage is produced, if the old nibs are allowed to remain in the pot, and a small quantity of fresh ones be added daily until the pot is half full. But many persons prefer clear cocoa, and in this case fresh nibs only must be used for each decoction.

To a quart of water allow a tea-cupfall of nibs, boil slowly for at least six hours, filling up the pot to keep the original quantity. When done, strain and allow the cocoa to get cold, then skim off every particle of fat which may have risen; boil up again and serve.

A cheap, excellent, and wholesome beverage can be made from cocoa-shells, a pound of these costing but threepence. Cocoa is made in exactly the same way from them as from the nibs, allowing a breakfast-cup of shells to each quart of water.

Chocolate

The quantity of chocolate to be used must depend on the desired thickness and the quality of the material. The chocolate of the Compagnie Coloniale maintains its superiority, and two recipes for its use are given.

Put a pint of water in a perfectly clean stewpan, break up a stick of chocolate, drop it in, boil very slowly until all is dissolved, stirring occasionally. Serve with the milk.

The second method by which a rich beverage is obtained is as follows: Grate a stick of chocolate, stir it into half-a-pint of boiling milk in a stewpan, whisk it over the fire, and as the froth rises, take it off, put it into the chocolate pot, which must be kept hot, and continue whisking until all is done.

Lunch: Roasted Leg Of Mutton. Yorkshire Pudding. Browned Potatoes. Rice Pudding

Roasted Leg Of Mutton

A great French writer on culinary matters has said that to roast well a cook must be born with a talent for roasting. Whether this be true or not, it is certain that a cook who can roast a joint of meat properly and send up a so-called plain dinner, such as the above menu is capable of acquiring the highest branches of the culinary art. Inexperienced cooks should bear in mind that no rule of time can apply for roasting, unless the joint is subjected in the first place to a considerable degree of heat, which within ten minutes must be lessened and kept moderate and equal for the necessary time. This great heat in the commencement of the process is necessary in order to close the pores and prevent the escape of the juices of the meat, and the slower heat following will gradually reach the bone and render the joint succulent and delicious.

In the case of roasting by an open range, the fire should be so prepared before putting down the joint as to last, with but slight addition of fuel, during the whole time of cooking. Dripping should if possible be made hot, and the joint be basted with it as soon as it goes to the fire. A meat screen is indispensable, and the joint should be basted every ten minutes. The old rule of a quarter of an hour to a pound of meat is a good one, but one hour and three quarters will, if the process is properly carried on, be sufficient to roast a leg of mutton weighing eight pounds to perfection.

In roasting by any kind of closed range the greatest care should be taken to have the ovens clean. If any fat or products of former cookery are suffered to remain, they will impregnate the meat with an odour which is not only most unpleasant but positively unwholesome. A roasting oven if properly ventilated, scrupulously clean, and supplied with a double dripping pan, the under of which must contain water, will cook joints of meat in great perfection, and there cannot be any reasonable objection urged against roasting by this method.

To roast by gas the same general rules as above apply, and it is most important that the cooking should proceed slowly. In roasting by a gas oven constructed on proper principles, as for example, Leoni's, a considerable saving is effected, as the loss by evaporation is much less than by any other method. The meat, moreover, requires no basting or other attention from the time it is placed in the oven until it is done, and the most fastidious eater could not discover any difference between a joint so cooked and one roasted before the fire.

The gravy for roasted meat should be clear, tasty, and brown, and this can always be made from bones and scraps, or better still, from the rich deposit of jelly found beneath the dripping of joints previously roasted. This with the addition of water or the water in which green vegetables have been boiled, with a few drops of colouring, will make gravy sufficiently good for every day fare. The practice of making gravy in the dripping pan is objectionable, not only because gravy so made is apt to be greasy, but because the serving of the joint whilst hot is very often delayed by it.

Yorkshire Pudding

Before the introduction of the closed range, Yorkshire puddings were always cooked in the dripping pan after having been "set" in the oven. A very good batter pudding, suitable for eating with meat can be baked, but it is impossible it can resemble those finished under a joint of meat roasted before the fire, or in Leoni's gas oven, in which the meat is suspended. To make the batter, mix ten ounces of the finest flour in a gill of cold water, add by degrees a pint of new milk, when it is quite smooth and free from lumps add a pinch of salt, the yolks of two eggs, and, when ready to cook the pudding, beat the whites of the eggs to a strong froth and stir them in briskly. Let two tablespoonfuls of good dripping get very hot in a tin baking-dish, into which pour the pudding, and put it into the oven for a quarter of an hour or until the batter is set. Put the dish with the pudding in the dripping-pan under the meat, let it remain for an hour when it should be brown. When you take up the pudding, drain all the fat from it, slide it on to a hot dish, cut it into neat square pieces, and serve.

Browned Potatoes

Peel and prepare the potatoes in the usual way and boil or steam them for a quarter of an hour if of average size, if small somewhat less time. Drain the potatoes, put them in a baking dish with some dripping, bake them in a quick oven basting occasionally for forty minutes, or until they are perfectly brown. They must, when done, be dry and free from fat. If there is no pudding in the dripping pan, the potatoes can be browned under the meat, and indeed are better than when baked. Potatoes for browning should always be parboiled; as, if baked raw, the outer crust is indigestible.

Rice Pudding

This recipe is for a good family pudding: the eggs can, if desired, be omitted.

Boil a quarter of a pound of rice until soft, drain it dry. Boil a pint of milk, pour it whilst boiling on to two eggs well beaten; sweeten with two ounces of raw sugar, and flavour with grated nutmeg or lemon peel. Mix this mustard with the rice, add an ounce of beef suet shred very finely; put the pudding into a tart dish, and bake it in a slow oven for an hour.

If more convenient, the rice may be baked in water instead of being boiled, and the pudding be finished in the same manner in either case.

Lunch: Spring Soup. Pie Of Stewed Shin Of Beef. Cocoa Pudding

Spring Soup

Cut up two pounds of the scrag end of a neck of veal, put it on to boil in two quarts of cold water, with two teaspoonfuls of salt. As soon as the water boils carefully skim the pot, and having done so, add half-a-pound of onions, two turnips, a small carrot, a tiny bit of mace, a sprig of thyme, and four white peppercorns. Let the soup boil gently for three hours, adding a little water from time to time in order to keep the original quantity. When it has boiled enough, strain the soup through a colander, and then through a napkin. It should now be-perfectly clear, but if there is any fat, when cool remove-it.

Cut up a dozen small spring onions, the same number of heads of asparagus, into the size of peas, and boil them in salted water until tender. Cut up one small cabbage lettuce into fine shreds, throw into boiling water with salt, and let it simmer a minute, or until tender. When these vegetables are" ready strain away the water and put them into the tureen, and having made the soup boiling-hot pour it on to them, and serve. The soup may require a little additional salt, and if liked, a pinch of cayenne and a lump of sugar.

Pie Of Stewed Shin Of Beef

Stew the roll of a shin of beef, weighing about three pounds, with a pound of onions, a turnip and carrot, a quart of water, a tablespoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of pepper. The beef will take from two to three hours to cook, according to its age and quality, and when done it must be perfectly tender without being ragged. Cut the meat into slices, the round way, place it in a pie dish, beat the vegetables cooked with it to a fine puree, mix this with the gravy, which should be reduced by boiling in a stewpan without the lid to half-a-pint, and pour it over the meat. Half a pound of uncooked ox kidney, or mushrooms if in the country and they are plentiful, are excellent additions. Make a crust as follows :-

Scrape very fine three quarters of a pound of beef-suet, weigh a pound of fine flour, roll a little of the suet with a little of the flour into flakes until all is worked up, mix into a paste with rather less than half a pint of cold water, and roll out very thin. Fold the paste over to the required thickness, put a thick layer round the edge, and cover the pie in the usual manner.

The quantities given above are for a large family-pie, which will be sufficient for eight persons. Equal quantities of suet and flour should be used if a superior crust is required. Crust thus made is very good, and if properly managed should be as light and good as that made with butter, and as it is to be eaten hot is more wholesome and digestible than the latter.

An excellent pudding can be made of the stewed shin proceeding in the same manner as for rump-steak pudding.

Cocoa Pudding

Boil half-a-pound of light stale bread in a pint of new milk, stir continually until it becomes a thick paste, then add an ounce of butter, a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar and two large teaspoonfuls of Van Houten's cocoa, with a little vanilla flavouring. Take the pudding off the fire and mix in first the yolks of three eggs, then the whites beaten to a strong froth. Put into a buttered tart-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for three quarters of an hour.

Lunch: Herrings With Mustard Sauce. Boiled Leg Of Mutton. Semolina Bottasso Pudding

Herrings With Mustard Sauce

Put a tablespoonful of the finest salad oil into a dish, pass the herrings through it on both sides. The fish must not be opened, and, with a little care, can easily be properly cleansed. Lightly pepper and salt the herrings, which should have soft roes, and let them lie for an hour. Place them on the gridiron over a very slow fire, turn them often until done; they will take from fifteen to twenty minutes.

To make the sauce for eight herrings take half-a-pint of white stock, stir into it, whilst boiling, an ounce of fine flour, and a teaspoonful of French mustard mixed smooth in a little cold water, continue stirring over the fire until thickened, add an ounce of butter and a large pinch of parsley chopped fine, pepper and salt to taste. Stir the sauce until the butter, which should be broken into little bits, is dissolved, and be careful it does not boil after this addition. Lay the herrings on a hot dish, pour the sauce round them, and serve.

Boiled Leg Of Mutton

Put the leg of mutton into a pot of boiling water sufficient to cover it. To each gallon of water allow two table-spoonfuls of salt and a large teaspoonful of pepper, with the turnips and carrots which are to be served with the meat. Allow the pot to boil fast for ten minutes; then skim, and draw it to the cooler part of the range, and keep it just at boiling point for the requisite time. A quarter of an hour to the pound of meat is sufficient, and if the leg weighs more than eight pounds, time may be calculated something less. If there is no objection, a few onions should be boiled with the meat, and they may be mashed with the turnips or served whole.

To mash the turnips, rub them through a colander into a stew pan, add a small piece of butter and a spoonful of cream, if convenient, work the puree over the fire with a wooden spoon until it is dry. Cut the carrots into neat pieces and serve in a vegetable dish round the mashed turnips.

It is customary of late to pour caper sauce over the mutton, but this should not be allowed, both because it is not good style, and because many people object to it. A cupful of the liquor in which the meat was boiled, sufficiently salted, may be poured on the dish.

Caper Sauce

Boil a tablespoonful of capers with half a pint of water in a stewpan without the lid for ten minutes. Mash the capers with a wooden spoon so as to bruise each one. Make the water boil up, and stir in one ounce of fine flour mixed smooth in a gill of cold water. When it has thickened stir in an ounce of butter, let it dissolve, add a pinch of salt, and, if the sauce is not sufficiently acid, a little vinegar.

When the bottle containing capers is put away, take care to fill it up with fresh vinegar, as this prevents mould and loss of flavour.

Semolina "Bottasso" Pudding

Soak an ounce and a half of the semolina in a gill of milk for ten minutes, stir it into three gills of boiling milk, add an ounce of lump sugar and boil gently for twenty minutes stirring all the time. Take the semolina off the fire and stir in quickly the yolk of an egg, beaten up with a few drops of vanilla or other flavouring, and put it immediately into a mould previously rinsed with cold water. This can be served as a hot pudding, as after standing for ten minutes it will turn out in shape; but if allowed to remain until cold will eat like a rich and delicate cream. The recipe is for "Bottasso's" semolina,, an excellent and cheap article of food; the ordinary kind can be used, but will require longer boiling and will not be so delicate. Syrup, preserve, or stewed fruit can be eaten with the pudding.

Lunch: Milk Soup. Rump Steak. Haricot Beans. Pancakes

Milk Soup

Boil four onions, two turnips, and a piece of celery, all minced in a quart of water with a teaspoonful of salt and a large pinch of white pepper until tender, then rub them through a sieve to a pulp. Mix this with the water the vegetables were boiled in, with a quart of milk, let it boil up, stir in two tablespoonfuls of French potato-flour mixed smooth in half a pint of cold milk. Stir over the fire until it has thickened, add pepper and salt to taste, and a tea-spoonful of castor sugar. Serve with fried bread.

Rump Steak

Choose that which the butchers call a "point steak." It is not only the most economical, but the best cut of the rump. If there is any doubt about its being tender use the kreatome, or steak tenderer, and having done so, put a teaspoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the steak through it on both sides, and allow it to lie for at least an hour. When the time for cooking arrives, sprinkle each side of the steak with pepper and salt, put it on a gridiron over a clear fire, and cook quickly at first, to slightly harden the outside and cause the meat to retain its juices. With the steak-tongs turn the steak every minute, this prevents the possibility of its getting dry, as well as the loss of gravy, A steak of average thickness will take from ten to twelve minutes to broil properly.

If there is no objection to the flavour of shalot, shred one as finely as possible, put it on the dish on which the steak is to be served with a slice of butter, put it into the oven whilst the steak is cooking. Home-made catsup may be substituted for the shalot, or butter alone be used. When the steak is done, pass it on both sides through the butter, sprinkle over it a little more pepper and salt, and take care to serve very hot. Should the fire be slow, the steak must only be turned every two minutes, and when done it should be a rich brown on both sides.

The cooks of fifty years ago were averse from the practice of beating steaks; and, no doubt, in those days, when the edible animals, as a rule, were kept to a proper age before killing, and it was thought disgraceful to fatten up old cows or worn-out ewes for the market, it was unnecessary. Dr. Kitchener says:- "Do not beat steaks, which vulgar trick breaks the cells in which the gravy of the meat is contained, and it becomes dry and tasteless. N.B. If your butcher sends steaks which are not tender, we do not insist that you should object to let him be beaten!"

Fillet steak should always be peppered and salted for several hours before cooking, as the flavour is thereby much improved. A favourite accompaniment to this dish is maitre d'hotel butter, which is finely minced parsley mixed with cold butter, pepper, and salt. A small piece of this mixture should be laid on each slice of fillet the moment before it is sent to table.

To Cook Haricot Beans

Put the beans in plenty of cold water, when they boil throw in a little salt, let them boil about two hours, and when the skin begins to crack strain away all the water, which put aside to help make soup, and put a thick cloth over the beans. Put the saucepan on the hob for one hour for the beans to steam, by this time the little water left with them will have dried up, and the beans will be thoroughly cooked and mealy.

Haricot Beans Fried

Prepare the beans as in the foregoing recipe, put a little sweet dripping into a stewpan, let it come to a froth, then put in the hot cooked beans with a very little chopped sage, toss them about with a wooden spoon till they are a pale gold colour; add a little pepper and salt, and serve very hot.

Pancakes

Mix eight ounces of the finest white flour with three gills of milk. Take care to mix the batter very smooth, putting a little milk at a time to the flour and working together by degrees. Beat up the yolks of three eggs, stir them well into the batter, add a pinch of salt, and when ready to fry the pancakes beat the whites of the eggs to a strong froth and stir them in lightly. Before commencing to fry the pancakes, dissolve two ounces of butter in the fryingpan, pour it into a basin, and for each pancake use one dessertspoonful of this dissolved butter. "When this is hot enough, measure four tablespoonfuls of batter into a cup, pour it into and let it run thinly over the pan, which hold over a brisk fire and shake gently until the under side is brown and the upper side set. Toss it, and let the other side brown; slide it on to a dish, sift sugar and fold the pancake into an oval shape, keep hot whilst the remainder are fried. This quantity of batter will make seven pancakes fried in a pan eight inches in diameter.

It is usual to. fry pancakes in lard, but they are only fit for the most robust digestions, and are rarely eaten with impunity. The art of tossing pancakes is one easily acquired. The cook should practice by tossing a plate mat of a piece of millboard cut to the shape of her pan; when she has learned to toss this, she will find it perfectly easy to manage a pancake. Many cooks recommend that batter should be made some hours before required for use, but the writer, in her own practice, has found if the batter is carefully mixed as directed, this is not necessary.

Lunch: Semolina Soup. Irish Stew. Jam Pudding

Semolina Soup

Use semolina "Bottasso." Boil a quarter of a pound in a quart of water for twenty minutes. When done, add the semolina and the water in which it has boiled to a quart of stock rich-flavoured with vegetables. Boil together for a minute, and serve.

Irish Stew

It is better and more economical for a family to make Irish stew of the scrags of mutton than of the best end of the neck. Two scrags of mutton, weighing together about four pounds, will make a dish sufficient for seven or eight persons. Divide the meat into convenient pieces for serving, put it on to boil very gently for two hours with sufficient water to cover it, salt, pepper, and four or five onions, or more if they are liked by the family. Take care that the mutton cooks very slowly; when it is tender enough, strain away the gravy, and carefully remove every particle of fat; put a layer of sliced potatoes at the bottom of the saucepan, then the meat and onions, over this another layer of potatoes, about two pounds of which will suffice, then pour in the gravy, well seasoned with pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and simmer the stew until the potatoes are properly cooked.

Many people think that potatoes contain some poisonous quality which is drawn into the water in which they are cooked, and therefore prefer to boil them before adding them to the stew. By so doing, the fine flavour the potatoes should give to the stew is lost. There is reason to think that the popular belief in potato water being unwholesome has no foundation in fact. It is indeed possible that being cooked with meat before the fat is removed from the gravy, the potatoes absorb too much grease and so become rich and indigestible, and that thus the idea of a poisonous principle has gained ground.

Jam Pudding

This pudding may be made in the same way as Treacle Pudding, or as follows:- Rub a pint basin with butter, cut thin slices of light stale bread and line the sides, putting a round slice at the bottom. Shred an ounce of beef suet fine, put a little on the round, then a spoonful of raspberry or strawberry jam, then another round of bread, more suet and jam, and so on until the basin is full, leaving a round of bread at the top by way of a cover. Boil half a pint of milk with an ounce of sugar, pour it over an egg lightly beaten, and add it slowly to the pudding. Cover with a paper cap, and steam for an hour.

Lunch: Stewed Beef Steak. Suet Dumplings. Boiled Potatoes. Bread Pudding

Stewed Beef Steak

Beef steak stewed according to this recipe is useful when there is not time to prepare a thick slice in one piece, nevertheless, to have it tender and in perfection, an hour and a half is required for stewing.

Get a pound and a half of buttock steak, without extra fat; first cut it in long thin strips, then in neat small dice. Have ready a pint of boiling water with half a teaspoonful of salt and a large pinch of pepper; put in the meat, let it boil for a few seconds sharply, then moderate the heat so that the meat will only simmer until done. Half an hour after the meat begins to cook put in two or three minced onions. When the meat is perfectly tender, stir into the gravy two tablespoonfuls of flour mixed smooth in half a pint of cold water, and a little more salt and pepper if necessary, and as soon as the gravy has thickened put the stew on a dish and garnish with suet dumplings.

Suet Dumplings

Scrape two ounces of fine beef suet very thin, mix it with three ounces of flour, a pinch of salt, and water to make a stiff paste. Flour your hands and roll the paste into balls about the size of a florin, have ready a stewpan half filled with boiling water slightly salted, drop in the dumplings and let them boil fast for twenty minutes, take them up with a fish slice and place them round the stewed steak. If preferred, these dumplings may be made of dripping or butter in the proportion of two ounces of the fat to four ounces of flour. A small pinch of sage and pepper can, if liked, be used as flavouring for the dumplings.

Boiled Potatoes

It is a matter both of taste and convenience whether potatoes be boiled with or without their skins, but the idea that any great economy is effected by the former method is erroneous. If the potato boiled in its skin is of a friable nature and thoroughly well done, it is apt to break in peeling; and the haste in which this process is often necessarily accomplished at the moment of serving dinner is a great disadvantage.

At different seasons of the year potatoes require special modes of treatment, and they take a longer or shorter time according to the size and kind. Experience alone can teach the art of cooking potatoes to perfection, and by far the best and nicest way is to steam them.

For boiling potatoes in their skins, wash them in lukewarm water, and scrub them with a brush kept for the purpose, afterwards rinsing them in cold water. Put the potatoes in a saucepan that will just hold them, sprinkle salt over and cover them with cold water, let them boil gently until done, drain away all the water, cover the potatoes with a cloth, shake them, allow them to remain for five minutes. Take each potato in a cloth, hold it in your hand and peel it carefully with a knife. Serve immediately.

To prepare potatoes for boiling without their skins, wash and brush them, put them into a pan of cold water, peel each one as thin as possible and take out the eyes, and as you do them throw them into a pan of clean cold water. Potatoes may be thus prepared many hours before it is time to cook them, and if care be taken to cover them with cold water they will look all the whiter and be more floury for lying all night. Put the potatoes in a saucepan of cold water with salt, let them boil until they begin to look floury, but are still not quite done through, drain away the water, cover the potatoes closely with a nice linen cloth, put on the lid and set the saucepan on the range for ten or fifteen minutes until the potatoes resemble a ball of flour.

If convenient to steam potatoes, sprinkle them with salt when put into the steamer, and when they are done cover them with a cloth in the same way as for boiled potatoes, take the steamer off the saucepan, put it on a cool part of the range, and when it has stood for five minutes, serve the potatoes.

A very general impression prevails that a small quantity of potatoes cannot be successfully steamed, but even two may be exquisitely cooked if a fine clean cloth which will fill up the steamer be placed over them, as this keeps in the steam and prevents the potatoes becoming watery.

Bread Pudding

This pudding can be made of any stale pieces of bread, the lighter kinds being preferable. Break the bread into small pieces, put it into an earthenware pan with sufficient water to cover it, drain this away, and let the bread stand for an hour, when squeeze it as dry as possible. To a pound of bread thus prepared put an egg beaten up in half a pint of boiling milk, sugar to taste, and an ounce of finely shred beef-suet. Flavour with nutmeg, pudding spice, or grated lemon-peel; put the pudding into a tart-dish rubbed over with butter or lard, and bake in a moderate oven for three quarters of an hour.

If it is desired to have sauce, make it as follows:- Stir into half a pint of boiling water a dessertspoonful of corn-flour mixed smooth in a gill of cold water, let it boil up, sweeten with golden syrup or sugar, add the juice of half a lemon or a pinch of tartaric acid, and an ounce of butter stirred into the sauce just before serving.

Lunch: Bread Soup. Liver And Bacon. Treacle Pudding

Bread Soup

Boil four minced onions, two turnips, and a small stick of celery, also minced, in a quart of water with a tablespoonful of salt. When the vegetables are tender add another quart of water, break in half a pound of light bread-crusts and boil gently for twenty minutes. Stir the bread until broken up, add an ounce of butter, pepper and salt to taste, and a teaspoonful of finely-shred parsley.

Liver And Bacon

Take care to have the liver fresh and do not cut it up until ready to use it, then divide it into neat slices, dip each in flour highly seasoned with pepper and salt. Cut the bacon into thin rashers (the fatter it is the better), melt a bit of dripping or other fat in a saucepan, place the liver on this, keeping the slices as close together as you can, shred an union very fine, sprinkle it over the liver, then put in the bacon and cover the saucepan closely; put it on the hob and let it stand cooking as slowly as possible for an hour. Be sure the liver does not boil or fry, as then it will be hard. When done put the liver on the dish for serving, boil up the bacon in the gravy quickly for a minute, thicken it with flour and water, season to taste, and pour it over the liver.

Treacle Pudding

Shred half a pound of beef suet, roll it into ten ounces of fine flour, mix into a paste with a gill of cold water, roll it out to the thickness of a quarter of an inch, and line a pint-and-half basin, which has been well rubbed with butter, with it. Cut the remainder of the paste into rounds the size of the interior of the basin, put a dessertspoonful of treacle in the pudding, then a round of paste, and so on until the dish is full, putting a round of paste on the top and fastening it securely to the sides. Tie over with a cloth and boil or steam for an hour and a half. When done turn out the pudding, have ready half a pound of treacle made hot in a stewpan, pour it over and serve. There should not be more than half a pound of treacle boiled in the pudding.

Lunch: Mutton Broth. Roast Pork. Apple Sauce. Warwickshire Pudding

Mutton Broth

Wash and break up into very small pieces two pounds of the scrag end of a neck of mutton, put it on to boil in a gallon of water with a tablespoonful of salt. As soon as it boils take off any scum which has risen, and put into the pot a pound of onions, four large turnips, two carrots, and if convenient a couple of leeks. When the broth has boiled for an hour add a small stick of celery, boil for another hour, strain, remove any fat, add pepper and salt to taste, pour the broth on to a quarter of a pound of Italian paste, or vermicelli, previously boiled, and put into the soup tureen. Serve chopped and scalded parsley separately.

Roast Pork

Great care is necessary in choosing pork. In the London market it is sometimes difficult to get fine full-grown meat, the butchers preferring to sell what they call "dairy pork." Unless of a very fine quality and well fed, this class of meat is greasy and indigestible, and is also wasteful. Pork known as hog meat is for every reason to be preferred. It is prepared for towns at the farms, the fat being removed, and only the prime joints sent to the butchers. These have fine white fat, the lean being a clear, pinkish white, well veined with delicate streaks of fat, and on a slight pressure with the finger yielding a deep indentation. The fore loin of pork, the bladebone having been removed, is the most profitable for family use, and it is an economy to buy the whole, using the best end for roasting, the chump for sausages, forcemeat, or curries. The flavour of sage and onion with pork is objectionable to some persons, but minced shalot with sage is generally acceptable, because milder and more digestible. With two teaspoonfuls of dried and sifted sage mix one tea-spoonful of finely minced shalot, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and one of black pepper. Put some of this mixture between each of the bones, and rub a little on the outside of the meat. Do this if possible the day before cooking it. Pork requires to be well done and to be roasted quickly.

Apple Sauce

Quarter and pare good cooking apples, put them in a stew-pan with a little water, cover close, and stew the apples until they will pulp. If the apples are of a hard kind and will not break up, rub them through a coarse sieve. Put the pulp back into the stewpan; if it is too liquid stir it over the fire until dry enough, then add raw sugar to taste, half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit is usually sufficient. Stir the sauce over the fire until well mixed, smooth, and dry. Some persons like a little mustard and a pinch of salt added to the sauce at the same time as the sugar.

Warwickshire Pudding

Butter a pint and a half tart dish, lay in it a layer of light bread cut thin, on this sprinkle a portion of two ounces of shred suet, and of one ounce of lemon candy peel chopped very fine. Fill the dish lightly with layers of bread, sprinkling over each a little of the suet and peel. Boil a pint of milk with two ounces of sugar, pour it on two eggs beaten for a minute, and add it to the pudding just before putting it into the oven; a little extract of lemon or shred lemon peel may be added to the custard. Bake the pudding in a very slow oven for an hour.

Lunch: Sheep's Head Soup. Rissolettes. Beatrice Pudding

Sheep's Head Soup

This recipe is cheap and good, and is especially suitable for the family table and for the poor.

If a sheep's head is bought without tongue or brains the cost of the soup will be reduced, or, if bought whole, the latter should be reserved to make breakfast dishes.

Having most thoroughly washed and cleansed the head, boil it for five minutes in two quarts of water with a little salt. Drain away this water, and thus perfect cleanliness will be ensured. Put the head on again with three gallons of cold water, half a pound of bacon, four pounds of onions, two pounds of carrots, one pound of turnips, one clove of garlic, a large teaspoonful of black pepper, two large tablespoonfuls of salt. Let the bacon and vegetables be cut up small, and boil altogether for two hours, or until the head is tender, which take up, and having carefully removed every particle of bone, chop the meat small and return to the soup. Mix one pound of flour or of oatmeal smooth in a quart of cold water; let the soup boil up, stir in the thickening, let it boil for five minutes if you use flour, and for fifteen minutes for oatmeal. Add salt and pepper to taste. A little celery is a great improvement to the soup, as is also chopped parsley added at the same time as the thickening.

Rissolettes Of Beef Or Mutton

Mince the meat very fine, taking care it is free from skin and gristle, add to it about a fourth of its weight in bread crumbs. Mix them with an onion boiled until perfectly tender, a few drops of essence of anchovy, pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to make it all into a stiff paste. Roll into egg-shaped balls, dip each in egg and bread-crumbs, and fry very gently. One egg, if well beaten, will suffice both to mix and egg the outside of a dozen rissolettes of moderate size. Make a little gravy of the water the onion was boiled in and the trimmings of the meat, and when the rissolettes are done pour the fat from the frying-pan, in which let the gravy boil up, then thicken with a little flour and water. A few drops of vinegar or any sharp sauce may be added with advantage, season with pepper and salt, and pour the gravy round the rissolettes.

If convenient to fry the rissolettes in the wire basket and with hot fat as for croquettes, it is better to do so.

Beatrice Pudding

Soak a quarter of a pound of light bread in half a pint of new milk, add an ounce of very fresh beef kidney suet, shred as finely as possible. Boil, stirring vigorously until this becomes firm, take it off the fire, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs, and put the pudding into a buttered tart dish. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour, then spread over the top of the pudding, which should not more than half fill the dish, a layer of orange marmalade. Whisk the whites of two eggs to a firm froth, mix lightly with them a quarter of a pound of the finest sifted sugar, spread this meringue mixture over the marmalade, put the pudding again into the oven, which must be slow, and let it remain until the top is a light golden brown.

Lunch: Cabbage Soup. Mutton Pasty. Italian Macaroni. Plain Apple Charlotte

Cabbage Soup

Wash and trim a fine young cabbage with a good white heart, cut the leaves into fine shreds, and boil them until tender in a quart of water. Add the cabbage and the water in which it was boiled to a quart of good broth, the liquor in which mutton or pork has been boiled, or indeed any fresh pot liquor answers well, season with pepper and salt, and just before serving stir in an ounce of fresh butter and two lumps of sugar. The cabbage should be in sufficient quantity to make the soup thick.

Mutton Pasty

This dish can be made from the remains of a joint or of the scrag of mutton previously stewed.

If the pasty is to be made of cold, roasted, or boiled mutton, cut the slices about a quarter of an inch thick, and lay them in a large pie-dish. Have ready some onions boiled until tender, put on the meat a layer of these, then sprinkle over with pepper and salt, add enough gravy, or if you have none, of the water in which the onions were boiled, to cover the meat, taking care not to have the dish more than three parts full. Boil and mash enough potatoes to fill up the dish, lay them in lightly, mark the top in diamonds with a knife, and bake in a moderate oven for three quarters of an hour.

To stew the scrag of mutton for a pasty, put it on with enough water to cover it; pepper, salt, three onions, a turnip, and a carrot. Simmer very gently until the meat is perfectly tender, remove it from the bones, and place it in a pie-dish with the vegetables minced. Take the fat off the gravy and add it to the meat.

Stewed sheep's head makes an excellent pasty, and is economical.

Italian Macaroni

Throw a quarter of a pound of the best Italian macaroni into three pints of boiling water with a small tea-spoonful of salt, and let it boil fast for twenty minutes. Drain the macaroni as dry as possible in a colander, put it into a clean stewpan with a gill of good gravy, an ounce of fresh butter, and an ounce of grated Parmesan, or other cheese. Stir over a slow fire for five minutes, and serve.

If mushrooms are plentiful, a few stewed in the gravy before putting it to the macaroni make an excellent addition.

Plain Apple Charlotte

Put a dozen apples in a tin baking dish with a few spoonfuls of water, and bake them in a slow oven until done. Apples slowly baked do not burst and lose their juice, as they do when baked too quickly. When done carefully scrape out all the pulp of the apples, and put it, with sufficient sugar to make it sweet enough, into a stewpan, stir it over the fire until it begins to get stiff; put it in the centre of a dish, and place round it a border of bread, fried as follows : cut the crumb of a small tin loaf into triangles about half-an-inch thick, throw them into fat hot enough to brown them instantly, let the pieces fry for half-a-minute, take them up, and put them between paper to absorb any fat clinging to them, dip each triangle into golden syrup, and arrange them round the apple, which should be hot. Apricot jam is preferable to golden syrup but is more expensive.

Lunch: Mashed Parsnips. Fried Bread. Stewed Ox Heart. Batter Pudding

Mashed Parsnips

Wash and scrape a large parsnip, cut it into eight lengths, and having divided them in half, put them into a quart of boiling water with a teaspoonful of salt, and an ounce of good dripping. Boil the parsnip until perfectly tender, it will take about two hours to cook. Take it up, drain and press the parsnip in a colander to get out as much moisture as possible, and with a wooden spoon mash it quite smooth, then put it into a clean stewpan with an ounce of fresh butter, or a tablespoonful of milk or cream, add salt and pepper, and stir the parsnip over the fire for five minutes, and take care to serve hot.

Fried Bread

Heat a pound of frying fat to the proper temperature, place half-a-pound of light bread, cut into dice, in the frying-basket, shake out the loose crumbs, plunge the basket into the fat, move it about until the bread is a golden brown, then turn it on to paper to dry, and it is ready. Bread properly fried will be crisp, but not the least hard, and is an excellent addition to many dishes.

Stewed Ox Heart

Divide the heart down the middle, rub flour over it and fry it until of a nice brown on both sides. When this is done put it into a saucepan with enough water to cover it, a sprig of thyme, a large pinch of pepper, a teaspoonful of salt, and three or four onions. Let the saucepan simmer for two hours, or until the heart is perfectly tender. When done thicken the gravy with flour mixed smooth in a little cold water, add salt and pepper, if necessary, and a pinch of brown sugar.

For a pudding prepare the heart as above, stewing it for one hour only, cut it in slices, and put it with its gravy and some sliced potatoes, with pepper and salt, into a pudding basin lined with crust made of dripping or suet. Boil the pudding for an hour and a half, or according to size. For a pie stew the heart until tender, cut it into neat pieces, put them in the pie-dish with minced onion, the gravy, or some water, and, if convenient, a quarter of a pound of beef kidney, cut into small pieces. Cover the dish with pie-crust, and bake for an hour, or longer if the oven is slow.

Batter Pudding

The great secret of making a light batter pudding lies in mixing the flour very thoroughly with water, before adding the milk, and in well beating the yolks and whites of the eggs separately. Mix half-a-pound of flour smooth in a gill of cold water, add by degrees a pint of milk, a pinch of salt, and the yolks of two eggs. Grease a basin and when ready to boil the pudding, beat up the whites of the eggs to a strong froth, stir them in, pour the pudding into the basin, cover with a cloth, and boil for an hour and a quarter. If preferred, the pudding can be baked, and a pinch of baking powder added at the last moment will make it lighter.

Lunch: Pea Or Lentil Soup. Fish Pie. Boiled Oatmeal Pudding

Pea Or Lentil Soup

Dried peas contain a high degree of nourishment, and deserve to be more generally in favour than they are.

Lentils, which are a foreign variety of pea, are even more nutritious than those of English growth, and it is well known that the "Revalenta Arabica" is prepared from them. The flour of peas, which is sold "to thicken soup in a few minutes," is, as a rule, destitute of the fine dietetic quality of the dried vegetable itself, and there is no valid reason for its use. As a rule, when pea soup is given at dinner the other dishes should be light, not because the peas are in themselves indigestible, but because, combined with food of an equal value, the digestive organs may be too severely taxed. Thus fish pie, as in the above menu, is suitable, as are all dishes containing but a small proportion of animal food.

Peas are excellent for children in combination with milk, and in some cases a puree, made of equal quantities of well boiled rice and peas, will be found more suitable than peas alone.

Dried peas should always be soaked, and, where large quantities are used, it is desirable to grind them, as they then take less time to cook. Put the peas to soak in cold water for twelve hours, skim off any which float on the surface, drain, and tie them loosely in a cloth, which plunge into a saucepan containing plenty of cold water and a piece of washing-soda the size of a hazel-nut to each quart. The time the peas will take depends much on their quality; but they should be soft in less than three hours. When done take the peas out of the cloth; if they will not beat up easily to a pulp, pass them through a coarse sieve, using milk or broth to facilitate the process.

When perfectly smooth, mix the prepared peas with broth of any sort in which a liberal allowance of fresh vegetable roots, turnips, carrots, onions, and celery has been boiled. If liked, a pinch of curry powder is an excellent addition. An economical and nourishing pea soup can be made with peas, prepared as directed, mixed in the broth in which bacon or fat pork has been boiled; care must be taken not to make the soup salt. Dried and sifted mint is usually served with pea soup, and in cases where there has not been vegetables boiled in the broth and it is not too salt, celery salt may be used to advantage. Fried or toasted bread should be served separately.

Fish Pie

Take a pound of any cooked fish very carefully picked from bone, and mix it with a sauce made as follows: Boil the bones in a small quantity of water for twenty minutes, when cold mix a gill of the liquor with two ounces of fine flour, and stir over the fire until it thickens, add two ounces of butter, keep stirring rapidly until well-mixed in, take the sauce off the fire, mix in an egg, a large teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, the same quantity of lemon juice, a large pinch of salt and a small one of cayenne pepper. The sauce should be very thick, and some care will be required in stirring it over the fire. Mix the picked fish and the sauce together. Put a layer of fine mashed potatoes at the bottom of a tail-dish, then all the fish, and over this another layer of potatoes. Smooth the top over neatly, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. If preferred, the potato can be spread on a bright tin dish, the fish be placed high in the centre of it, and then be thoroughly covered over with potato. This has a better appearance than when cooked in a tart-dish, but is not so nice, as too much potato is required to cover the fish up thoroughly.

Boiled Oatmeal Pudding

This is a cheap and nice family pudding. - Mix a quarter of a pound of coarse oatmeal in half-a-pint of cold water, and stir on to it a pint of boiling milk or water, add an ounce of shred suet or any other fat, two eggs, a little spice, sugar to taste, and, by way of a treat, two ounces of sultana raisins. Put the pudding into a greased basin, cover with a cloth, and boil for an hour and a half.

Make a sauce to eat with the pudding as follows:- Boil an ounce of currants in half-a-pint of water for five minutes, break up the currants with a spoon, and stir in a tablespoonful of flour mixed smooth in a little cold water, add a little spice and sugar to taste. Children like the sauce without the currants if sweetened with treacle.

Fish

On Frying Fish

Perhaps there is nothing in the whole range of cookery which will so test the powers of a cook as a plainly fried sole or whiting. Yet there is nothing difficult in the operation if attention is paid to a few simple elementary rules. A very common excuse with cooks for failure in this matter, is the quality of the fish they have had to dress. If it is not brown they say it was stale and would not cook properly; if underdone it had been kept too long on ice, with a number of other reasons equally fallacious. The fact is that, although it will not taste good, stale fish will brown and cook as well as that which is perfectly fresh. Of late years raspings have been much used for frying fish; if of a very pale colour, and sifted as fine as possible, they may be used, but properly prepared bread-crumbs are greatly to be preferred. Bread two days old should be chosen, and after being broken up and rubbed through a coarse strainer, should be put into the oven at a low heat or on the range to dry, then the crumbs should be pressed through a very fine strainer, and if at all moist, again dried in the oven. Crumbs properly prepared will keep a long time. When the cook is at leisure, she should get a quantity of crumbs ready, for if not at hand when wanted she will be placed at a disadvantage.

The bread-crumbs being ready, they should have two tablespoonfuls of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, and a large pinch of pepper mixed with them to the proportion of a quarter of a pound of crumbs. As a matter of economy, both the white and yolk of an egg may be used for egging the fish, but it is better to use the yolk only with a very little of the white. Unless the fish has been most thoroughly dried in a cloth, the egg and crumbs will not adhere properly. The frying-pans in ordinary use will not admit of sufficient fat being used to cover the fish; it is, therefore, necessary to turn it, which can be readily managed when the fish is half done, that is, properly browned on the under side. The fat must be the right temperature when the fish goes in, that is 350º, which will give the usual domestic test of browning instantly a piece of bread dipped in it. Any one with the least experience should know when fried fish is done without cutting it. If a fork or skewer is thrust into the thickest part of the fish, it will stick and be difficult to withdraw if the fish is not done, but if, on the contrary, it is done, the fork will come out with great ease. Large thick fish are not suitable for frying whole, they should be filleted, stewed, or boiled.

Fried Smelts

Dry the fish, egg, and pass them through bread-crumbs very finely sifted, mixed with an equal quantity of flour and a little salt. Fry quickly in plenty of fat, as directed for soles. The smelts must be very crisp and dry, and when done be a rich golden brown.

Sea Bream

Sea Bream is excellent if cooked in fish or meat stock with the addition of vinegar, and is even better than when baked and stuffed.

Collared Eels

Clean, skin, and boil the eels in water highly seasoned with pepper and salt, an onion, bay-leaf, a clove, and a little vinegar. When the eels are done enough, slip out the bones and cut them up into pieces about two inches long. Take the liquor in which the fish has boiled, strain it, let it boil in the stewpan without the lid, skimming it until it becomes clear. Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of isinglass to each half-pint of the fish gravy, and boil both together for a minute, let it then stand until cool. Arrange the pieces of eel tastefully in a plain mould with small sprigs of curled parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs, and, if you like, a fillet or two of anchovies cut up into dice. When all the fish is thus arranged in the mould pour the jelly in very gently, a tablespoonful at a time, in order not to disturb the solid material. Let the mould stand in cold water for seven or eight hours, when the contents can be turned out. Ornament the dish with parsley, lemon-juice, and beetroot.

Dried Mackerel

Cook as directed for kippered herrings. This fish is not so suitable for curing as those above-mentioned, and consequently is apt to be dry and hard.

Rechauffe Of Turbot

Cut the pieces neatly from the bone, lightly pepper, salt, and flour them. Have a little butter in the frying-pan, and let the fish cook gently until warm through and a nice brown, or the pieces may be brushed over with yolk of eggs, crumbed lightly with seasoned bread-crumbs, and then fried quickly in a little butter.

To Cook Sole Fish

Fried Sole

Soles weighing from three-quarters of a pound to a pound are the most suitable size for frying whole. If it is desired to have the fish juicy and with their full flavour, do not have them skinned. The black side of the soles will not of course look so well or be so crisp as the white side, but this is of little consequence compared to the nourishment sacrificed in removing the skin. Have the soles scraped, wipe them, put a tablespoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the fish through it, and let them lie an hour, or more, if convenient, as the flavour is thus improved. When ready to crurnb the fish, lay them in a cloth and thoroughly dry them. Beat up the yolk of an egg with a very little of the white, this will be sufficient to egg a pair of soles, pass the fish through the egg on both sides, hold it up to drain, have ready on a plate a quarter of a pound of very fine dry crumbs, mixed with flour, salt, and pepper. Draw the fish over the crumbs, first on one side, then on the other, and lay it gently on a dish black side downwards, whilst you prepare another. Some people succeed better in crumbing fish by sifting the crumbs on to it through a very fine strainer after it is egged. When the fish are ready, put them black side downwards into the frying-pan with plenty of fat, hot enough to brown a piece of bread instantaneously, move the pan about gently, and when the soles have fried four minutes, put a strong cooking fork into them near the head, turn the white side downwards, and fry three minutes longer. Seven minutes will he sufficient to fry a sole weighing three-quarters of a pound, and a pair of this weight are sufficient for a party of six persons. When the sole is done, put the fork into the fish close to the head, hold it up and let all the fat drain away, lay it on a sheet of cap paper, and cover over with another sheet. Being thus quite free from grease, of a rich golden brown, crisp, and with an even surface, lay the fish on the dish for serving, which should have on it either a fish paper or a napkin neatly folded.

A well-fried sole is best eaten without the accompaniment of any sauce, but, in deference to the national usage butter sauce or melted butter may be served with it.

Filleted Soles

It is better for the cook to fillet the soles, for there is often much waste when it is done by the fishmonger. Having skinned the fish with a sharp knife, make an incision down the spine bone from the head to the tail, and then along the fins, pass the knife between the flesh and the bone, pressing rather hard against the latter, and the fillets will then be readily removed. These can now be dressed in a variety of ways, perhaps the most delicate for breakfast is the following :-

Fillets Of Sole Sautes

Having dried the fillets divide them into neat pieces two or three inches long, dip them in the beaten yolk of egg, and then in seasoned bread-crumbs. Make a little butter hot in the frying-pan, put in the fillets, and cook them slowly until brown on one side, then turn and finish on the other.

Fillets Of Sole Fried

These may either be rolled in one piece, or divided into several, as in the foregoing recipe. In either case egg and crumb them thoroughly, place them in the wire basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the fillets on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, and serve as hot as possible.

All kinds of flat fish can be filleted and cooked by these recipes, and will usually be found more economical than serving the fish whole. It is also economical to fillet the tail end of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either fry or saute as may be preferred.

Fillets Of Sole A La Maitre D'Hotel

Prepare the fillets as in the first recipe, they may be rolled or in pieces. Boil the bones and skins of the fish in water with an onion for half an hour, strain the liquor, let it boil up, add a little pepper and salt, and gently boil the fillets in it for about ten minutes or until tender. If there is too much liquor to make a sauce, strain away a part of it to half a pint, put a tablespoonful of flour mixed smooth in cold water, stir this in gently with the fish, and when it has thickened taste it, and if necessary add pepper and salt, throw in a little chopped parsley; let it cook gently for a minute or so, add a very little lemon juice to the sauce and the dish will be ready.

Fillets Of Sole En Aspic

Aspic or meat jelly may be made very good, and at a moderate cost, by boiling lean beef or veal in water with a little vegetable and spice. To make it according to the standard recipes is so expensive and tedious that few persons care to attempt it. The following directions will enable a cook to make an excellent and clear aspic.

Cut two pounds of lean beef-steak or veal cutlets into dice, put it on in two quarts of cold water, and as soon as it boils take off the scum as it rises. Let it simmer gently for half an hour, then add four onions, a turnip, carrot, small bundle of sweet herbs, blade of mace, half-a-dozen white peppercorns, and when it has again boiled for an hour, strain it through a napkin. Let it stand until cold remove all the fat, boil it up, and to a pint and a half of the liquor put an ounce of Nelson's gelatine, previously soaked in cold water, add salt and a pinch of cayenne pepper, and when the jelly is cool stir in the whites and shells of three eggs well beaten. Let the jelly boil briskly for two minutes, let it stand off the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a jelly-bag and use as directed.

Take the fillets of a pair of large, thick soles, cut them into neat square pieces, leaving the trimmings for other dishes, and lay them in vinegar with a little salt for an hour. As they must be kept very white, the best French vinegar should be used. Boil the fillets gently in salted water with a little vinegar until done, take them up and dry them on a cloth. Have ready some picked parsley and hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters; arrange these neatly at the bottom of a plain mould so as to form a pretty pattern. Pour in very gently enough jelly to cover the first layer, let it stand until beginning to set, then put another layer of fish, eggs, and parsley, then more jelly, and so on until the mould is full. When done put the mould on ice, or allow it to stand twelve hours in a cold place to get well set. Turn it out, ornament with parsley, beetroot, and cut lemon.

Baked Soles

Small fish called by fishmongers "slips" answer well for this purpose, and are very good for breakfast.

Dissolve a little butter in a tin baking-dish, pass the white side of the sole through it, and place it black side downwards in the baking-dish, sift over it very fine breadcrumbs, highly seasoned with pepper and salt, and bake slowly for half an hour, or until the fish is cooked. Smelts can be baked in the same manner.

To Cook Salmon

Boiled Salmon

The principles which govern the cooking of meat when immersed in liquid should be applied to large fish, - it should boil for just time enough to harden the outer edges and thus prevent the escape of the juices and consequent loss of flavour and nourishment. Salmon should be cooked either in liquor in which fish has been boiled, or in stock well salted, and the addition of a small piece of saltpetre helps to preserve the colour.

Put the fish into boiling liquid, and let it boil sharply for less than a minute, then keep it simmering until the flesh will come easily from the bone. Should it be necessary to keep the fish hot for a short time after it is done, lift it out of the water and let it stand on the drainer over the steam, covered with a thick cloth. The time fish will take to cook depends on the thickness of it and the mode of boiling; if slowly done, a piece of a large fish weighing five to six pounds will take from three-quarters of an hour to an hour.

Cod fish, Turbot, Brill, etc., should be boiled in the same manner as salmon, and in the case of turbot it is desirable to add vinegar or white wine to the liquor in which it is boiled.

Salmon Steaks

Fishmongers generally cut these too thick; they should not be more than half an inch thick. Dip the steak in dissolved butter, lightly sprinkle with pepper and salt, and wrap it up in greased writing paper, carefully folded so that the butter cannot run out. Place it on the gridiron, over a moderate fire; it will take from fifteen to twenty minutes, and must often be turned. Put a little dissolved butter on a hot dish, and place the fish on it and serve.

Salmon steaks are less dry if, when prepared as above, they are laid in a stewpan with a little butter and very slowly cooked, or they may be very slowly fried in butter in the frying-pan.

When salmon is dear a comparatively inexpensive little dish may be made by filleting the tail end, a piece of which weighing a pound will be sufficient for four or five persons. Carefully remove the flesh from the backbone in one piece, divide it down the middle again into two or three pieces. Melt an ounce of butter in a stew-pan, place the fillets in it skin downwards, pepper and salt the upper side. Put the pan, closely covered, on the range, or over a very slow fire, and let the fish cook very gently for ten minutes, turn it carefully on the other side until done. Serve with the butter in which it was cooked poured over the salmon. The excellence of this dish depends on the cooking being very slowly done, and salmon is thus rendered more digestible than by any other method.

If preferred a piquant or plain sauce can be served with or poured over the salmon, and a few sliced gherkins can be used by way of garnish.

Kippered Salmon

Cook the salmon exactly as directed for kippered herrings, allowing fifteen or twenty minutes, according to the thickness of the fish.

Mayonnaise Of Salmon

For a handsome dish, about six pounds of the middle cut of a fine salmon will be required. When, however, appearance is not an object, a less expensive piece answers well, and the whole of a moderate-sized salmon makes an elegant dish. Salmon, and indeed all other kinds of fish, should be boiled either in a fish stock, or one flavoured with vegetables, spices, herbs, and, if possible, a little wine. The liquor in which ham or bacon has been boiled, with the addition of turnips, carrots, onions, bay leaves, thyme, and a few white peppercorns, makes an excellent stock in which to boil salmon. The stock should be strained, but have the fat left on it. Put a sufficient quantity of stock into the fish-kettle to cover the salmon, as soon as it boils put in the fish, allow it to boil for one minute, then draw the kettle to the side of the fire, and let it simmer gently until the fish is done; it will probably take three-quarters of an hour. When done, remove the kettle from the fire, and let the fish get cool in the liquor, then drain and place it on its dish. Ornament the edge of the dish with neatly picked pieces of endive and water-cress, interspersed with beetroot cut into the shape of flowers, olives, or leaves. Just before serving the fish pour the sauce over.

In the case of a whole fish, it is better not to pour the sauce over, but to serve it in a tureen. In order to raise the salmon on the dish, and give it a handsome appearance, it may be laid on the fish drainer, covered with a napkin, and decorated with prawns and water-cress or other salad, the sauce being served separately.

The reason so few persons succeed in making a satisfactory mayonnaise sauce is that they do not give the necessary time and patience. Three-quarters of an hour is the time required for making half-a-pint of mayonnaise, and, of course, for a larger quantity somewhat longer. For a pint of sauce, put the yolks of two large eggs, perfectly free from white, into a marble mortar, mix in two large pinches of salt, and then with the pestle work in drop by drop two teaspoonfuls of oil. Have ready mixed a tablespoonful each of French vinegar, of tarragon vinegar, and of chili vinegar. Work in a few drops of the vinegar, and then another teaspoonful of oil, proceed in this manner until the sauce begins to get thick, when rather more oil may be added at a time. Three gills of oil will be about the quantity required, and if the sauce has been successfully made it will be as thick and white as Devonshire cream. Great care should be taken in selecting the materials for mayonnaise sauce, and nothing is so disagreeable as the flavour of inferior oil.

An imitation mayonnaise may be used if there is not time to make the above. Prepare a quart of rich white sauce, and, when cold, flavour it with tarragon and chili vinegars.

Salmon Salad

Cook some pieces of salmon as directed for salmon steaks, when done take them out of the butter and put them on a dish with a little French vinegar, pepper, and salt. When they have lain for an hour - or more, if convenient, wipe them in a cloth, and arrange them in a plain mould with pieces of cabbage lettuce, a few picked prawns, and olives previously blanched and stoned, and when this is done fill up the mould with jelly, made as directed for collared eels, either of fish or clear veal stock. Let the mould stand until the contents are cold, turn it out on to a dish, and round the edge place a shred salad, over which, the moment before serving, pour a well-prepared salad dressing.

In preparing salad great care should be taken to dry it thoroughly by shaking in a cloth. Each kind of vegetable should be treated separately; the small salad well washed through a colander, drained and dried, and the cress and lettuces most carefully freed from grit and insects. At the same time salad must not be allowed to lose its crispness.

Salad Dressing

Mix the yolk of an egg with a teaspoonful of mustard, a saltspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, to a smooth paste; add by degrees a table-spoonful of French vinegar. Measure a quarter of a pint of the finest salad oil, and mix with the other ingredients drop by drop until the dressing is very thick; a little more vinegar may be added at the last if it is not sharp enough.

Salad dressing may be made by the recipe for mayonnaise sauce, using plain instead of flavoured vinegar.

To Cook Cod Fish

Fried Cod Fish

Get slices of cod about half an inch thick, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and if convenient let them lie for an hour or two. Then dip them in yolk of egg and sifted bread crumbs seasoned with salt, a pinch of dried parsley very finely sifted, and a shake of black pepper. Fry quickly in plenty of fat. Cod's head cleverly fried is esteemed a great delicacy, and a fine one may generally be had at a very small cost, and will furnish a breakfast for two persons.

Rechauffe Of Cod Fish

Take the fish from the bones, making sure none are left in it; make a sauce by boiling the bones and skin in broth, and afterwards reducing it to a very small quantity by boiling rapidly without the lid of the stewpan. Use to this an equal quantity of cream or milk, flavour nicely with Burgess's essence of anchovy, cayenne pepper, and salt; then make it very thick with equal quantities of corn-flour and flour. Stir the fish into this sauce whilst hot, spread a layer of finely sifted bread-crumbs on a buttered dish, lay the fish on this, then cover over thoroughly with another layer of crumbs, put a little dissolved butter over it and bake a quarter of an hour in a quick oven. If you have any oyster or lobster sauce left it will answer well to mix with the fish instead of making fresh, only it must be very thick, as when the dish goes to table it ought not to be moist. Turbot, or indeed almost any fish, is good re-warmed in this way, and the addition of shellfish is always an improvement.

Hard Cod's Roe

This is a very cheap, and, if well prepared, makes an excellent dish. Get the fresh roe the day before it is wanted, boil it in salt and water until perfectly firm, when cold slice it into cutlets a quarter of an inch thick and lay them in a pickle composed of a pinch of saltpetre and of baysalt, a teaspoonful of common salt, a pinch of pepper, ground cloves, nutmegs, and allspice, the whole mixed with two teaspoonfuls of vinegar. Let the cutlets remain in this pickle until the next day, turning them occasionally. A little before cooking, drain, dry, brush over with egg, and dip them in finely sifted bread-crumbs well seasoned with pepper and salt, and a pinch of chopped parsley. Fry the cutlets in butter until a nice brown, and when about to serve pour round them a sauce made as follows: Take a gill of good gravy, add a few drops of essence of anchovy, thicken it with flour, chop up a tablespoonful of capers and boil them for a minute in the gravy. After taking it from the fire stir in a spoonful of plain or any good pickling vinegar.

To Cook Haddock

The manner in which haddock is usually boiled has made this method of cooking it unpopular. It generally comes to table with great gashes in the side, denoting the furious rate at which it has been boiled, the flesh being as hard and flavourless as might be expected from its appearance. To look well, and to eat well, haddock must not be boiled at all: it is a very delicate fish, and should be treated in accordance with its character. When the fish is cleansed, the eyes being removed, lay it in a dish and pour two or three tablespoonfuls of vinegar over it, leave it thus for an hour or more, turning it occasionally on the dish. If you have no liquor in which fish has been cooked, prepare stock for the haddock by boiling two onions, a turnip, a carrot, all minced or cut small, a small bunch of sweet herbs, half a dozen white peppercorns, and a shred of mace, in two quarts of water for an hour. At the expiration of this time strain the stock, put it back into the fish-kettle with two teaspoonfuls of salt and four teaspoonfuls of French vinegar, let it boil, put in the haddock, draw the kettle to the side of the fire, and allow the fish to simmer very gently for half an hour, or until done. If the fish is allowed to boil, the skin will crack and the flesh be tough. When ready lift the fish out of the kettle on the drainer and slide it on to a hot dish, pour sauce carefully over the back of the fish, and serve immediately; serve a portion of the sauce in a tureen.

Fresh Haddock Broiled

Cut the fish open, take out the bone in the same manner as directed for mackerel, lightly pepper and salt it, and hang up for twelve hours in as airy a place as you can command. When about to cook the fish dissolve some butter, and brush it thickly over the haddock. Lay it with the skin downwards on the gridiron, and keep it over a slow fire for twenty minutes, by which time it should be cooked. Put a little more butter over the fish, and when melted serve it very hot. After being prepared as directed, the haddock may be slowly fried in butter if more convenient than broiling.

Dried Haddock

To render this fish digestible, it should, after being washed, be placed in the fish-kettle - or the frying-pan covered with a plate answers well - with a pint of boiling water. It should then stand at a heat which will keep it below simmering point, from fifteen to thirty minutes, according to the size of the fish. When done put it before the fire, and rub a little butter over it. If properly managed the haddock will not lose its flavour, but, if preferred, it can be broiled over a slow fire.

To Cook Herrings

Kippered Herrings

Put the herrings into a basin, pour over enough boiling water to cover them, take them out immediately, and put them skin downwards in a frying-pan. For two herrings put half an ounce of butter and a tablespoonful of hot water into the pan, and baste them frequently with it for ten minutes, taking care the fire is not strong enough to boil the fish, indeed the slower the cooking proceeds the better. When placed on a hot dish pass a small piece of butter over the fish, sprinkle lightly with pepper, and serve very hot.

Baked Herrings

If you can, get the herrings with soft roes, they are best for baking. Cut off the heads of the fish, open and clean them. Press the backbone with the finger and thumb of the right hand and with those of the left draw out the bone. Sprinkle the herrings with pepper, salt, and a little flour, lay the roes on them, and roll up tightly with the skin outwards. Pack the herrings closely in an earthenware pot with a lid, put water to cover them, and bake them slowly for two hours, or until they are well done; then drain the liquor off, and cover the fish with vinegar, and add a little pepper and salt. Herrings thus prepared will keep a long time; and if done when cheap will be found economical for family use. The liquor drained from them after baking should not be wasted; if left to stand until cold the fat can, if desired, be taken off, and soup be flavoured with the liquor. If there is no convenient oven in the house, get the baker to put the jar in his oven after the bread is drawn. If preferred, the roes may be cooked as a separate dish instead of being rolled in the herrings. Pepper and salt the roes, fry them gently in fat until brown, and eat them with fried bread, or, they can be broiled or toasted.

Cheap Fish Pies

For a pie of fresh fish, haddock, or mackerel, boil the fish the usual time in water with salt, pepper, and a little vinegar, pick the fish from the bones, and make the pie in the same manner as with salted herrings.

The cheapest fish pie is made of red herrings or dried haddock. Put the herrings after cleaning them into as much boiling water as will cover them, and simmer them for one minute. Take out the fish, wipe them, take off the skin, and remove the backbone, holding the herring in one hand and pressing it with the thumb and finger of the other; the bone should then come out whole, and be very careful none is left. Pick the fish into small flakes, and mix it with a spoonful or two of dissolved dripping. Have ready for each herring half-a-pound of mashed potatoes seasoned with pepper and salt, put a thick layer in a pie-dish, then cover up with the remainder of the potatoes and bake in a slow oven for a quarter of an hour.

Make a sauce to eat with the pie, by boiling the bones and skin of the fish in a little water. When done, strain them, boil up the liquor and thicken it with flour mixed smooth in cold water, add pepper and salt, and if liked, a few drops of vinegar. A small quantity of any kind of pickle chopped and made hot in the sauce is very good.

To make the pie of dried haddock, proceed as for herrings, but simmer the haddock for five minutes. A little chopped parsley is a great improvement to this dish.

Oyster Trifles

The first thing to do will be to make the paper cases for the trifles. They can be bought at the stationer's at nine-pence the dozen, but can be made at home for a penny.

The cases for savoury trifles of any kind should not be so deep as those for ramakins; about three-quarters of an inch deep and two inches wide is the best size.

To make the cases, cut thin white writing paper into rounds four inches in diameter. Now take a wood block (one on which drapers roll ribbon answers perfectly), and shape the case into the form of a patty-pan, neatly fold over the edge of the paper, and crimp it to keep the case in shape.

Take the beard off the oysters, and simmer them for two minutes in two or three tablespoonfuls of water, strain them, put the oyster liquor to that obtained from the beards with the juice of a small lemon, let it boil and stir in a tablespoonful of fine flour, mixed smooth in two tablespoonfuls of milk or cream, stir very rapidly for four minutes, as this sauce will be very thick; now add an ounce of butter, and a large pinch of cayenne pepper. Chop the oysters, or if you can manage it, break them up with a silver knife or fork, put them into the sauce, cover the saucepan with its lid, and let it stand on the range for five minutes, taking the greatest care that there is no approach to boiling; the heat of the sauce should be sufficient to cook the oysters, boiling or simmering would ruin the dish.

Take a feather and brush over the paper cases with fine salad oil, or dissolved butter; fill them with the oyster mixture. Hand round the dish with one case to each person. These trifles are by many persons preferred to oyster patties, as they are less rich, and if the cook cannot prepare the finest kind of pastry, are convenient substitutes. A small quantity only is supposed to be served, as the trifles go by way of appetisers, and should be well and rather highly seasoned.

To Cook Lobster

Lobster Cutlets

These may be economically made with preserved lobster. Small claws of fresh lobsters, which are used by way of ornament, can always be had at trifling cost of the fishmonger; but, if not convenient to use these, parsley stalks can be substituted. Cut up the lobster into small pieces, and mix it with a sauce made as directed for croquettes, adding shrimp or anchovy sauce to taste. Mould the paste into small cakes, egg and crumb and fry them in the wire basket in the same manner as croquettes. Drain, and into each cutlet stick a small lobster claw, arranging them neatly on a fish paper.

If the cutlets are made of fresh lobster, the hen should be chosen, and the coral be pounded, rubbed through a sieve, and mixed with the other ingredients.

Scalloped Lobster

Strain the liquor from a tin of preserved lobster into a basin, mix with it two tablespoonfuls of fine flour, and stir on to it a gill of boiling water. Put this into a stewpan with an ounce of fresh butter, and stir until thick; add a teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, and a pinch of cayenne pepper; pick any bits of shell or cartilage from the lobster, and add it to the sauce. Butter a tin dish, put in it a thick layer of bread-crumbs and on this the lobster; cover with a thick layer of crumbs, spread bits of butter thickly on the top, and bake in a quick oven for fifteen minutes. If not brown, use the salamander, or colour before the fire in Dutch oven.

Lobster En Beignets

Preserved lobster answers very well for these. Moir's or Bray and Hayes' are the best brands. Divide the lobster into as nice pieces as you can - the smaller answers well for sauce or scalloping - and dip each into a good frying batter as directed for ox brains, but adding to it a little cayenne pepper and a few drops of Burgess's Essence of Anchovies. Fry the beignets quickly in oil or good fat, and serve hot.

Lobster Sauce

Make plain butter sauce in the proportion of one ounce of flour, half a pint of boiling water, and two ounces of fresh butter. Put into this the meat of the lobster cut into small pieces, the coral pounded very fine, a pinch of cayenne, and anchovy or shrimp essence to taste. Let the lobster get hot in the sauce without boiling, and serve with salmon or turbot.

To Cook Beef

Grenadines Of Beef

Cut two pounds of the undercut of either the sirloin or the rump of beef into neat cutlets, about the third of an inch thick. Lard them with thin strips of bacon, and put them in a stewpan with a small piece of butter, lightly sprinkling the upper side with pepper and salt. Let them cook very slowly, without approaching frying point, for fifteen minutes, then turn them on the other side, which lightly pepper and salt, and allow the grena-dines to cook for another fifteen minutes. Have ready half a pint of rich, well-flavoured gravy, of a good brown colour, and thick enough to coat the grenadines, which place on the dish, pouring the gravy slowly over them. The dish may be made to look very pretty by a little garnish of sprigs of cauliflower, Brussels-sprouts, or any vegetable in season, but after these are boiled and drained from the water, they must be tossed in a stewpan with a little butter.

Roulades De Boeuf

To make these a fillet of beef must be procured. One of the most convenient ways is to remove the fillet or undercut of the sirloin before roasting. The undercut of the rump - known as fillet steak - is, however, equally suitable for the purpose. There need be no waste in its use, as all the trimmings can be made into pies or stews for the second table. Cut as many slices as you require roulades as thin as possible, lay one at a time flat on the board, cover it with a very thin slice - not quite so large as the beef - of well-cooked bacon, then roll it up very tightly, egg it over, roll it in finely sifted bread-crumbs very highly seasoned with pepper and salt, then put it on a skewer in such a manner as it will keep its shape nicely. As the remainder are prepared place them on the skewer not too close together - four will be sufficient to place on each skewer. Put into the frying-pan a small slice of butter, and when it boils put in the roulades and let them cook gently on one side for ten minutes, when they should be crisp and brown - then turn them on the other side and finish. A very little concentrated gravy, thickened, may be poured round the dish immediately before serving, or they may be sent up without it. The remains of a roasted fillet of beef, or of sirloin, are excellent used for roulades.

Hashed Beef

The only part of cold beef which is suitable for this dish is the undercut of the sirloin, which cut into slices half an inch thick, and place in a stewpan covered with good stock or gravy, one or two minced onions, and a turnip. Let the meat get hot slowly, and stand very gently simmering for three-quarters of an hour. Thicken the gravy, add salt and pepper if necessary, and serve the hash with currant jelly. If liked, a glass of claret and a lump of sugar can be added to the gravy with the thickening. It is usual to place fried or toasted bread round the dish.

Pressed Beef

Take a nice square piece of the thick flank, cure it lightly as directed for spiced beef (p. 34), boil it in stock with a bay leaf and an onion and a bundle of sweet herbs. When perfectly tender place it between two dishes with heavy weights on the top. The next day trim it neatly and glaze. This looks nice, and is improved if when cold it is cut to the size of a deep tin dish, and when placed in it a clear meat jelly is poured over so as to run well underneath it. When turned on to its dish to be served, the meat should be found covered with a bright, clear jelly, a quarter to half an inch thick.

Rolled Beef

Choose a piece of the thick flank long enough to roll well, about four pounds will be enough for a small collaring tin, put it into a pickle as directed for spiced beef. When about to cook, take out the bones and gristle and remove all skin, roll the meat round, secure it with string, and boil gently until it is perfectly tender. Remove the string, put the meat into the collaring tin, set a weight on the top, and let it stand until the next day. The bones, etc., taken out of the meat should be boiled in the water with it.

To Cook Tripe

Tripe In Batter

Boil the tripe after prepared in the shops for two hours. To each pound put a quart of cold water, two teaspoon-fuls of salt, a small teaspoonful of pepper, a bay-leaf, a very small bit of mace, three onions, and a tablespoonful of vinegar. When the tripe is ready, dry it in a clean cloth, cut it into neat squares of about two inches. Dip each piece in batter, and fry in hot fat until crisp and a light brown. As you take up each piece put it on paper, to absorb any fat clinging to it, and serve as quickly as possible. Not more than two or three pieces should be fried at once, lest the temperature of the fat be too much reduced.

Baked Tripe With Potatoes

Put a pound of tripe, cut into neat squares, in a stew-ing-pot, with four shred onions, a small teaspoonful of pepper, and one of salt, and enough stock or water to cover it. Let it cook in a slow oven for three hours, taking care to fill up the pot should the liquor dry up. When the tripe is perfectly tender strain away the gravy, from which remove all fat, and make it as thick as cream with flour. Put the gravy and tripe into a pie-dish, and make a cover of mashed potatoes, and bake for ten minutes, or until the pasty is hot throughout. The potatoes should be brown on the top.

Meat Puddings

A well-made meat pudding is not only an economical but a generally acceptable dish. The material most in use is rump steak, with the addition of kidneys or mushrooms. Excellent meat pudding may be made of any other kind of meat, and perhaps the best of these is pork with the addition of kidney. The meat, however, must be that of full-grown pigs, and be tolerably free from fat. Veal and bacon, rabbit, pickled pork, mutton, stewed shin of beef, and tripe, hearts, and many other things make good puddings. The method of making meat puddings is in all cases the same. The crust, to be light and digestible, should be made with at least the quantity of suet given in our recipe, and it should be shred, not chopped. For a quart basin, mix eight ounces of flour with six ounces of shred suet, make it into a paste with rather less than a gill of water, flour your board, roll the paste out, beat it a little, and having greased your basin, line it with the crust, reserving sufficient for the cover. Whilst this is doing, boil one or two minced onions in half a pint of water. Cut the meat in convenient pieces for serving, and quite free from fat, lay them in the basin, sprinkling pepper and salt over each layer. A large teaspoonful of salt and a small teaspoonful of pepper is usually a fair allowance of seasoning to a pound of meat. If you use kidneys or mushrooms, place them in the middle of the pudding between layers of meat. The basin should not be quite full, but space be allowed for the gravy. Pour in the onions and the water in which they were boiled, fasten on the cover of the pudding, tie over with a cloth, put into a saucepan of boiling water, and let it boil very gently for two hours and a half. If a superior pudding is required, stock or gravy should be used instead of the onion-water. Serve some gravy in a tureen in case there is not enough in the pudding.

Rechauffes

To use the crust remaining from steak pudding: Chop finely the remainder of the pudding crust, add a little flour, and mix into a paste with egg; flour your hands, and roll the paste into small balls of equal size. Put a little butter or other fat in a tin, and when it is dissolved, roll the balls in it, then bake them gently in the tin for half an hour, or until done. Take care they do not get brown or hard. Serve with a little gravy as a separate dish, or as an accompaniment to any kind of roast meats or hash.

To use beef remaining from the pudding: Put a little butter in a frying-pan of the smallest size; when it is hot, lay in the pieces of meat and kidney, let them get hot very gradually, turning them at least every minute.

If properly managed, the beef will take about eight minutes to get hot through, and will make a very delicious little dish. When done, sprinkle a very little salt and pepper on the beef, pour over any gravy in the pan, and serve. Observe that there is to be no approach to frying, which would harden the meat, but a slow and gentle heat to be maintained until it is hot through.

Little Dishes

Cow Heel

Stew the heel gently after it comes from the shop as cooked, for four hours, with four onions, a bay-leaf, two cloves, and sufficient pepper and salt to season the water highly. When done take the meat from the bones, cut it into neatly shaped pieces, egg, bread-crumb, and fry them in a little butter until brown. Let the bread-crumbs be highly seasoned. The heel can be served without sauce, but a puree of tomatoes or mushrooms goes well with it.

Savoury Roll Pudding

Make a paste of half a pound of flour, six ounces of shred suet, a pinch of salt, and a gill of cold water. Roll out the paste rather longer one way than the other, and about half an inch thick. Spread on it half a pound of beef steak, minced fine, seasoned with half a teaspoonful of salt and a large pinch of pepper, and, if approved, an onion, finely minced and boiled for a minute or two. Roll the pudding up neatly and tightly in the form of a bolster, taking care the meat is all kept in; wet the edges of the crust and press them well together; tie the pudding in a floured cloth and put it in a saucepan, with sufficient boiling water to cover it. Boil gently for an hour and a half. Serve with gravy in a boat.

Meat Minced

Any kind of cold meat, game, or poultry, can be advantageously made into a mince, and by the exercise of a little skill and taste, a dish which is too often insipid, may be rendered delicious.

First, in the case of cold beef or mutton, clear the meat you intend to mince of every particle of fat, sinew, and gristle; either chop it with the mincing knife or pass it through the sausage machine. This done, put the mince into a stewpan with sufficient cold, good gravy to cover it, and a minced shalot and a teaspoonful of minced parsley. Let this stand on the range, getting hot very slowly, but never approaching boiling point, and when it is done, add a very little Harvey, Worcester, or Chutney Sauce, as may be liked, and pepper and salt to taste. Fry sufficient sippets of bread for your party, place round the dish for serving, on each a sprig of fried parsley, and neatly place the mince in the centre of the dish.

Veal can be minced in the same manner as above, but when it has been made thoroughly hot in the gravy, which can be made from the bones and trimmings with an onion or two, and a sprig of thyme and parsley, it must be thickened with milk and flour, and have a grate of nutmeg and lemon peel added instead of sauce. It should then be stirred over the fire until thick, and be served with fried or toasted bread and fried parsley.

Shoulder Of Mutton Boned And Stuffed

There is no difficulty for a cook in removing the bones of a shoulder of mutton or lamb, and a little practice will enable her to accomplish it with dexterity. It is, however, generally possible to have the shoulder boned by the butcher. The bones will assist in making gravy, and one of the economies of boning meat is, that these and the trimmings can be utilised, whereas, if roasted in the joint they are usually wasted. The undercut of a shoulder of mutton makes a delicious pasty and other small dishes, and it is well to reserve this, and only roll the upper side. The same remark applies to a loin of mutton. Having removed the bones, leaving that of the knuckle, lay the meat flat, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and spread over a layer of forcemeat, made of equal quantities of breadcrumbs and cold boiled fat bacon. The usual seasonings are salt, pepper, sweet herbs, parsley, lemon peel, and a grate of lemon and nutmeg. Some persons, however, prefer minced shalot and a little dried and sifted sage. Having spread the forcemeat, taking care not to bring it too near the edges of the meat, bind the shoulder with tape so as to bring the knuckle near the centre of it, and to thoroughly secure the forcemeat.

The joint can either be roasted or brased, and in either case will require to be cooked gradually. To brase the meat put in the kettle a thick layer of sliced carrots, turnips, and onions, place it on these and pour in gently three quarts of boiling stock with a teaspoonful of pepper and three teaspoonfuls of salt. Allow the meat to simmer very gently for four hours, or until thoroughly stewed and tender. Take it up, and having poured the gravy through a strainer into a basin, place it again in the kettle, and keep it hot whilst the gravy is prepared, for which at least half an hour must be allowed. Place the basin containing the strained gravy in another with cold water, which change frequently, in order to facilitate the cooling. As soon as the fat is set remove it, put the gravy in a stewpan without the lid, and let it boil rapidly, skimming it as long as any scum rises. When the gravy has boiled down to about a pint return it to the meat in the kettle, which put over the fire and baste with the gravy for ten minutes. To avoid the delay of preparing the gravy in this manner, it is often possible by a little management to have one ready which will serve for this purpose. All that is necessary is, that the gravy should be gelatinous, and of a good flavour and colour. To assist in making gravy into half glaze, an ounce of Nelson's gelatine to a quart of gravy may be used: this boiled down to a pint will be very good.

The vegetables stewed with the meat will make a good garnish if minced fine, mixed with a very small piece of butter and re-warmed, or will be very good curried. Haricot beans also go well with this dish.

To Cook Mutton

Neck Of Mutton Cutlets

This excellent dish will serve either as an entree or a supper dish. It will be less expensive if the whole neck is purchased, and the scrag end served boiled or stewed. The best end will give seven cutlets, four with bones and three without them. Let the butcher saw off the chine bone, then the cutlets can easily be divided at home. Trim them neatly, removing any gristle and almost all the fat. Trim away the fat from the long bone, leaving it bare for nearly two inches. When the cutlets are ready, melt a piece of butter the size of a hazel nut in a stew-pan, put in a layer of sliced turnips, onions, and celery, lay the cutlets on this, lightly sprinkle pepper and salt over, and cover them with another layer of the above vegetables. Cover the stewpan closely, and place it on the range at a low heat, in order that the cutlets may stew gently in their own juice and that of the vegetables. If the meat is fine this part of the cooking will be effected in about half an hour, but if on trying the cutlets are not perfectly tender, they must stew longer. When done lay them on a board and flatten them with a wooden bat or spoon, then dip them in the yolk of an egg and in breadcrumbs. Fry in a little butter first on one side, then on the other, until lightly browned.

Have ready a puree of potatoes, made by rubbing a pound of boiled potatoes with a little of the vegetables stewed with the cutlets through a sieve. Put the puree into a stewpan with a gill of milk or cream, and pepper and salt to taste, and work over the fire until it is stiff. Pile it up in the centre of a small dish, place the cutlets round it, and having taken the fat off the gravy, re-warm, pour it round the dish, and serve immediately.

Chops

By far the best way of cooking chops and steaks is to broil them, and this may be done either over the fire or before it in a hanging gridiron; but no broiling is so perfect as that done by Leoni's gas ring with terra cotta reflector.

In the first place, lightly salt and pepper the meat on the side which is placed uppermost on the gridiron, then let it cook very quickly for about a minute, in order to harden the outside and prevent the escape of the juices before the meat is done. As soon as one side is done, turn over the other, pepper and salt it, and let this also brown, then turn again, moderate the heat, and let the chop cook from eight to ten minutes, according to thickness, turning it every minute. Chops are best served without condiment of any kind, but some persons like a small piece of butter passed over each of them after they are laid in the dish, pepper and salt being afterwards added.

Mutton Cutlets

It is often convenient to dress the loin chops as a breakfast dish for one or two persons as follows: - Trim away the fat, cut the meat neatly from the bones, and divide each chop into two. Egg and bread-crumb them and fry in a little butter.

Take the bones with an onion and make them into gravy. Thicken this either with a cooked potato rubbed through a sieve, a little tomato sauce, or flour, or serve plain.

Hashed Mutton

First take the meat from the bone of a leg of mutton in as large and neat slices as the state of the joint will admit. Break the bone by striking it sharply in the middle with a knife, put it in a saucepan with a little fat, and fry until it becomes brown; take it out, and in the fat fry two sliced onions until they also are a golden brown; if allowed to burn they will make the gravy bitter. Put the fried bones and onions into the saucepan with a peeled turnip, four whole onions, and a quart of water. When the gravy has boiled for an hour and a half take out the bones, carefully remove every particle of fat from it; when cool, put it back into the stewpan with the onions and meat, and pepper and salt to taste. Let the meat get hot very slowly in the gravy, and allow it to simmer for an hour, by which time it should be perfectly tender without being ragged. Take off any fat there may be on the gravy, which thicken with a little flour mixed smooth in cold water. The gravy should now be sufficiently tasty, but any flavouring may be added. Mushroom catsup, Worcester or Harvey Sauce, or a few drops of vinegar from pickles may be used. Toasted or fried bread should be placed round the dish on which the hash is served. Many people make hash by merely allowing the meat to get hot in the gravy, and by this method it is usually hard and tasteless, whilst the onions, if any are used, are insufficiently cooked, and, consequently, are indigestible. It is impossible that the sinewy portion of the leg or shoulder can be tender, unless simmered for some length of time.

Mutton Saute

Put a little butter or bacon fat in the frying-pan, sprinkle pepper and salt over slices of cold mutton, and let them get hot very slowly. The mutton must be frequently turned, and never allowed to fry. When turned in the pan for the last time sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the upper side; remove the slices carefully on to a hot dish, pour the fat in the pan over, and serve.

Cold Mutton Potted

Cut up the meat, being careful to free it from all sinew and skin, chop or pound it with half its weight of cooked bacon until it is as fine as desired. Season with a little pepper, salt, and allspice, and proceed as directed for beef.

Any kind of cold meat, veal and ham especially, is good potted, and in all cases the method is the same. Cod fish potted may be made almost equal to salmon by the addition of essence of anchovy, and a due admixture of salt and cayenne pepper.

To Cook Lamb

Shoulder Of Lamb Stuffed

This is a useful cold dish. Take out the blade-bone of the shoulder, leaving that of the knuckle. Make a stuffing of a quarter of a pound of fat pork, or of the back fat of bacon, taking care there is no lean. Let the fat be chopped fine, mix it with an equal quantity of fine breadcrumbs, a tablespoonful of chopped green parsley, a large pinch of thyme, a grate of lemon-peel and nutmeg, half a teaspoonful of salt and pepper, the whole to be made into a paste with egg. Put the stuffing between the folds of the meat, and fasten the shoulder up with skewers and twine into its natural shape. This must be roasted rather slowly, or it will shrink. When done, let the meat grow cold and remove the binding, then trim it neatly, glaze and ornament it either with vermicelli paste or lard piping. Have a frill of tissue paper cut very fine and put it round the knuckle.

Stewed Leg Of Lamb

Choose a small leg of lamb, weighing about four pounds, and put it into a kettle which is just large enough for it, with two onions, a small carrot, an ounce of salt, a small teaspoonful of pepper, two cloves, a small bundle of sweet herbs, and a quart of stock; cover the stewpan closely, and let it simmer gently for two hours. It will be well to try the meat at the end of an hour and a half, and if it is then tender, to cease stewing, and let it stand on a cool part of the range until wanted. Strain the gravy, take off the fat, and reduce it to about a pint by boiling without the lid of the stewpan, pour it over the meat and serve.

Boil a quarter of a pound of Italian pastine in a quart of water slightly salted, until tender; most shapes take about ten minutes. Take care, when you throw in the pastine, that the water boils, and that it continues to do so during all the time of cooking, as this will keep it from sticking together. Put this by way of garnish round the dish on which you have placed the leg of lamb.

To Cook Veal

Veal A La Casserole

For this dish a piece of the fillet about three inches thick will be required, and weighing from two to three pounds. It should be cut from one side of the leg, without bone; but sometimes butchers object to give it, as cutting in this manner interferes with cutlets. In such a case a piece must be chosen near the knuckle, and the bone be taken out before cooking. For a larger party, a thick slice of the fillet, weighing about four pounds, will be found advantageous.

With a piece of tape tie the veal into a round shape, flour, and put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, fry until it becomes brown on all sides. Then put half a pint of good gravy nicely seasoned with pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and set it on the stove to cook very slowly for at least, four hours. When done, the veal will be exquisitely tender, full of flavour, but not the least ragged. Take the meat up, and keep hot whilst the gravy is reduced, by boiling without the lid of the saucepan, to a rich glaze, which pour over the meat, and serve.

Frittura Piccata

Take about one pound of veal cutlet, which cut without any fat into small pieces, beat them very thin and shape about the size of a crown piece, season them well with pepper and salt, and roll in flour; put about two ounces of butter into a frying-pan with a tiny piece of garlic, when the butter boils put in the cutlets, fry them a pale gold colour; when nearly cooked throw in a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and a small wine glass of any good white wine, serve very hot with lemon. The fire must be a moderate one, so the butter should not brown too quickly, and the cutlets should be cooked only the minute before serving.

Veal Cutlets With Tomato Sauce

Choose a handsome piece of veal cutlet about one pound weight, which cut free from skin and fat into small pieces, beat them thin and season with pepper and salt, roll in flour as for Frittura Piccata; the trimmings can be stewed to make a little rich broth, which mix with a sevenpenny bottle of tomato sauce; then fry the cutlets in a covered stewpan, with a small piece of onion and chopped garlic, when they are a very pale brown colour add the sauce, a tablespoonful at a time, at intervals of a few minutes till all is used; this care is essential, because if all the sauce is poured in at once it quite destroys the rich character of the dish.

This is an Italian dish, which, if properly managed, will be found good; it may, however, be necessary to omit the garlic.

Veal Rissolettes

By this recipe the veal left from making artichoke soup, veal d la casserole, etc., etc., can be used up. Take the meat from the bones, mince it finely, add a quarter of its weight in boiled bacon or pork and the same of breadcrumbs, a little minced parsley, a few drops of essence of anchovy, and pepper and salt to taste; mix together into a stiff paste with beaten egg, flour your hands, and roll the mixture into the shape of corks or small eggs. Dip them into egg, then into bread-crumbs, and fry.

Calf's Liver A La Brochette

Cut a slice of liver a quarter of an inch thick, then divide it into pieces an inch square, cut an equal number of pieces of fat bacon exactly the same size and shape. Place these on small skewers, a piece of liver, then one of bacon, and so on until the skewer is full. Dissolve a little butter, mix pepper and salt with it, and then pass the liver and bacon on the skewers through it on all sides. Lay the brochettes in the Dutch oven and cook them very slowly before the fire, turning occasionally. When done, lay the brochettes on a hot dish, carefully draw out the skewers, so as to leave the liver and bacon in the form in which it has been cooked, pour the gravy which has run from them over, and serve immediately. If you have silver skewers they will not be withdrawn before serving the brochettes, and the dish looks much handsomer with them.

Risotto A La Milanese

Take a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, one mediumsized onion chopped very fine, about one ounce beef marrow or kidney suet, also chopped very fine, put altogether in a stewpan, and fry till the onion is a pale gold colour; after put one and a half pound of rice with a very little powdered saffron (about as much as will cover a threepenny piece will serve for three pounds of rice), cook altogether for about two minutes, stirring it constantly with a wooden spoon, so that it does not stick to the stewpan; after this two minutes' cooking, add very gradually as the rice swells about three pints of good beef tea or broth, let it simmer, stirring very frequently till the rice is just soft, before quite done, add two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; after this boil for one minute, then take it from the fire and set it on a hot plate or in the oven, put in one ounce more butter, cover for two minutes, it is then ready to serve.

The quantity of beef tea can be varied according as the risotto is liked, thick or otherwise. The Milanese rice proper for making this dish can be procured of Perelli Rocco, 8, Greek Street, Soho Square.

Roast Chickens With Water-Cress

The fashion of serving bread sauce with roasted poultry or game is unknown on the continent, and the French are especially intolerant of our "panade" as they term bread sauce. En revanche, the English will not accept water-cress as the best accompaniment to roast chicken, quails, or partridges. Nevertheless it is a delicious and appropriate accompaniment, and one we shall do well to adopt, at least by way of a change.

It is very rarely indeed chickens are properly roasted; they are too generally dried up before the fire, or sodden with dripping or other strong fat. The much neglected rule of frequent basting needs to be enforced in the roasting of chickens. English housewives are so chary in using butter one hesitates to say it is the proper fat with which to baste these delicate viands, and it is the only one used in France. Good cooking butter can generally be had for one and sixpence the pound, and as, if carefully put away, it will serve many times, it is not after all a serious extravagance. A pound of butter will be a liberal allowance for basting a pair of chickens. It is always best in roasting poultry to do it slowly at first, and, if necessary to increase the heat to brown the skin, to do so when the cooking is nearly completed. It is a good plan to put a piece of butter the size of a walnut, mixed with pepper and salt, in the bodies of the chickens, as it assists in keeping them moist.

When the chickens are placed on the dish pour round them a little good clear gravy made of beef and the giblets, and have ready some fresh green water-cress, well washed and thoroughly dried. Nothing could be more objectionable than any moisture clinging to the cress, therefore be very particular on this point. Place a thick border of the cress round the dish and a sprig on the breast of each chicken. The carver will send a little of the gravy and the cress to each guest, and no other vegetable or accompaniment will be served.

Fowl A La Soubise

Prepare a fine fowl as for boiling, fill up the body with small onions which have been parboiled in milk with a little salt. Make a stock, in which to boil the fowl, of the giblets, two or three bones from which streaked bacon has been cut, four large onions, two teaspoonfuls of salt and one of white pepper, boil in two quarts of water for an hour; the fowl should be put into the stock at boiling point and allowed to boil fast for one minute, then the temperature must be reduced and the pot kept just simmering until the fowl is cooked; it will take about an hour.

Make the Soubise sauce thus :- Boil six onions in a quart of water for a quarter of an hour, then strain and put the onions into a quart of milk (that in which the onions have been prepared for the fowl may be used), with a teaspoonful of salt, and let them boil gently until perfectly tender. Rub the onions through a sieve to a fine puree, put them back into the milk, let them boil, and stir in a large tablespoonful of fine flour (Vienna if possible), mixed smooth in a little cold milk. The sauce should be as thick as good cream, and if the quantity of flour is not sufficient, add a little more. After adding the flour, stir the sauce over the fire for five minutes, break in an ounce of butter, add a pinch of cayenne pepper and salt, if necessary, but do not let the sauce boil after adding the butter. Pour half the sauce over the fowl and serve the remainder in a tureen; garnish the dish with Brussels sprouts, carefully selected and picked, and boiled a good green, taking care they are well drained. Beetroot cut into shapes with a cutter looks very pretty mixed with the sprouts, but only a small quantity should be used. A large fowl cooked in this manner will be sufficient for six persons, as the legs are as good as the white meat. The The best way to serve it is to divide the legs in half, cut the meat from the bones, and serve a piece with a slice of the breast or wing, thus all the guests have an equal choice; put sauce over each serving and not by the side of it.

To Cook Chicken

Fried Chicken

Prepare it as for boiling. Put two ounces of butter into a stewpan, and when it boils put in the chicken, let it fry until a delicate brown, then sprinkle it with pepper and salt, put on the lid of the stewpan, and let it stand at a moderate heat until thoroughly done, as it should be in about half an hour. It is very convenient to cook the legs only of chickens in this way, or by broiling, as they eat better than any other part of the fowl, whilst the white meat serves better for other dishes. If appearance is not considered, a fowl can as well be roasted or boiled without as with the legs, and it is a great economy to use them for a separate dish.

Chicken Saute

Put any of the meat of the breast or of the wings, without bone, into a frying-pan with a little fresh butter or bacon fat. Cook them very slowly, turning repeatedly; if the meat has not been previously cooked, it will take ten minutes, and five minutes if a rechauffe. Sprinkle with pepper, and serve with mushrooms or broiled bacon. The legs of cooked chickens are excellent saute, but they should be boned before they are put into the pan.

Minced Chicken With Egg

Cut up all the meat of a cooked chicken into neat little squares. Put on the bones with a little water and an onion, and let them boil for an hour. Take the fat off this gravy and put in the minced chicken. Let it simmer gently until perfectly tender, then put in enough flour mixed with milk to thicken it, simmer up, and, having seasoned nicely stir in a teaspoonful of chutney. Pour this out of the stewpan into a dish, break on the top of the mince an egg to each person, strew over them a dust of fine raspings, pepper and salt, put in the oven until the eggs are set, not hard, and serve with fried croutons round the dish.

To Cook Poultry

Fillets Of Turkey

Cut the meat from the bones of dressed turkey legs, cutlet-wise, in slices about an inch thick. Work into a paste a teaspoonful of chutney, two of dissolved butter, one of anchovy, a few grains of cayenne pepper, and a pinch of salt. Spread this over the slices of turkey, then wrap each in a cover of white buttered paper, and place them on a gridiron over a clear fire. Turn them frequently, so that the paper does not scorch, and in about a quarter of an hour they will be done. Take them out of the papers, and serve on a hot dish.

Pigeons

Split up the back and flatten out, but do not divide them. Brush them over with dissolved butter, sprinkled with pepper and salt, and lay them on the gridiron, bones downwards, for fifteen minutes, over a very slow fire, basting the upper side every five minutes, and once more sprinkling pepper and salt over. Turn the pigeons, the meat side to the fire, and let them cook very slowly until done, which should be in about fifteen minutes more. Serve on a very hot dish, with a little dissolved butter poured over the birds.

To Cook Rabbit

Fried Rabbit

Choose a young one, cut it into small joints, and fry slowly in butter till a nice brown. When done pour over it the following sauce :- Dissolve a little butter in a saucepan, add pepper, salt, and a little scalded and chopped parsley; let it get hot, but on no account allow it to boil.

Rabbit With Mushrooms

Take all the meat lengthways from the back of a fat Ostend rabbit, and cut it into neat square pieces. Fry them very slowly in butter until a nice brown, sprinkle over with pepper and salt. Dish them, and place on each piece a well stewed mushroom, pouring round the dish the gravy from them; or a little mushroom catsup, diluted with thin white sauce, may be substituted. The portions of rabbit not used for this dish will answer well for a pie or fricasee.

To Cook Sweetbreads

Lamb's Sweetbreads

These make an admirable breakfast dish, and can be partly prepared over-night. Trim and wash the sweetbreads, put them into a saucepan with sufficient well-flavoured stock to cover them, a minced onion, and a sprig of lemon thyme, boil gently for fifteen minutes, or a little longer if necessary. Take them up, drain, dip in egg and finely sifted bread-crumbs, mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. Fry very carefully, so as not to make it brown or hard, some small slices of bacon; keep warm whilst you fry the sweetbreads in the fat which has run from it, adding, if required, a little piece of butter or lard.

For a breakfast dish, the sweetbread should be served without gravy; but if for an entree, the liquor in which they were stewed, with slight additions and a little thickening, can be poured round them in the dish.

Calf's sweetbreads are prepared in the same manner as the above, and can either be fried, finished in a Dutch oven, or served white, with parsley and butter or white sauce.

Sheep's Brains

These are an excellent substitute for sweetbreads, and if properly cooked, make an imitation that will deceive many persons. At all seasons they are to be had at small cost, especially so if it is convenient to buy the whole head for broth, etc. Having carefully washed the brains, boil them fast, so as to harden them without breaking them, in well-seasoned gravy. When done, take them up and allow them to remain till quite cold. Then divide each lobe down the middle and dip each piece in egg, and afterwards in seasoned bread-crumbs. Fry and serve as directed for sweetbreads.

Brains And Tongues Au Gratin

Take the tongues and brains from two sheeps' heads, lay the brains in cold water, and thoroughly wash the tongues in salt and water. Put both the tongues and brains into a stewpan, with sufficient cold water to cover them; add a little salt and let them boil for two minutes; then take them out of the water and throw it away. By thus treating any part of the head, perfect cleanliness is insured. Put the tongues into a stewpan, with a large pinch of saltpetre, a teaspoonful of salt, two onions, a bay-leaf, and a quart of water; let them boil for three hours, or until so perfectly tender that they will hardly bear the fork. When done, let them remain in the liquor until cool, then take off the skin, and set them aside until cold. The brains must be boiled separately, and rather fast, in a little highly seasoned stock, for ten minutes. When ready, let them get cold; then divide each lobe into three or four slices, dip them in egg, then in highly seasoned bread-crumb very finely sifted; divide the tongues, having first trimmed the roots of all gristle, etc., into three or four slices; egg and crumb these also. Put an ounce of butter into a frying-pan; when it froths, put in the brains and tongues, and fry first on one side and then on the other, until lightly browned. Serve with a little gravy, flavoured with mushrooms or lemon-juice, poured round the dish.

Brain Fritters

Procure an ox brain, carefully wash it, and boil it for a quarter of an hour in well-seasoned stock. When the brain is cold, cut it into slices as thin as possible, dip each of them in batter, drop them as you do them into fat at a temperature of 430°, or that which will brown instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make the batter, mix two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water, mix in a tablespoonful of dissolved butter or of fine oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt and pepper. Let the batter stand for two hours, and when ready to use, beat the white of the egg to a strong froth, and mix with it. Do not fry more than two fritters at once; as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or ornamental dish paper. If this recipe is closely followed, the fritters will be light, crisp, delicate morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides a very pretty dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take care the parsley is thoroughly dry, put it into a small frying-basket, and immerse it for an instant in the fat in which the fritters were cooked. Turn it out on paper, diy, and serve.

Sweetbread Balls

Mince any cooked sweetbread, roll it up with half its quantity of bread-crumbs, a little chopped parsley, pepper and salt, and if liked, a very small piece of shalot minced as finely as possible. Mix these together with sufficient egg to bind them, then roll them into balls, dip them in yolk of egg, and dust over with raspings, and fry them in a little butter.

Put a little brown gravy on a dish and place the balls on it.

Brain Or Sweetbread Cutlets

Cut the remains of any brains or sweetbreads into pieces about the size of half-a-crown, egg them over, and dip them in finely-sifted raspings, pepper, salt, and a pinch of dried parsley as fine as dust. Fry them in a little butter, and then place them round the edge of a dish with a piece of fried bread of equal size between each. In the centre put a little good gravy made very thick.

To Cook Kidneys

Kidneys A La Brochette

Split the kidneys in half, and again in quarters, skin them, dip each piece in dissolved butter, and sprinkle them with pepper and salt. Cut some slices of streaked bacon, rather fat than otherwise, and divide them into pieces as nearly the size of the kidneys as possible. Put a piece of kidney on a small skewer, then one of bacon, and so on until the skewer is full, the kidneys and bacon being pressed together as tightly as possible. Put the brochettes into the Dutch oven, let them cook slowly, basting frequently with the fat which runs from the bacon. Take care that the kidneys are not cooked too much, so as to become dry and hard; when done slip them off the skewers and serve, on a hot dish, with the gravy poured over.

Toasted Kidneys

Cut some slices of rather fat streaked bacon and lay them on a plate before the fire, or toast them until the fat begins to run and they are about half done, lay the kidneys, skinned and split open, on the plate, and finish toasting the bacon over them. Then manage to hold the kidneys on the toasting-fork, so that not a drop of the gravy falls on the edge of the plate to dry up and be lost; it should all run into the bacon fat. When the gravy ceases to run freely the kidney will be done enough. If it has been cooked slowly, the kidney will be tender and retain much of its gravy without being underdone or indigestible; but if, on the contrary, it has been cooked rapidly it will be hard and decidedly unwholesome. Kidneys may be toasted in the Dutch oven, care being taken to pursue the method indicated, so that the gravy is not dried up. Some of these little ovens are now made to facilitate frequent turning, which is a great advantage. Kent's patent Dutch oven is very strong and well made, and a handle is cleverly arranged so that anything cooking in it can be readily turned without loss of heat or moving the oven.

Kidneys With Mushrooms

Dry a half-tin of champignons in a cloth, or if convenient, prepare a similar quantity of fresh button mushrooms, add to these a few pieces of dried mushrooms, previously soaked for ten minutes in tepid water, put them into a stewpan with a slice of butter and stir constantly for six minutes, then add two or three kidneys cut in small neat pieces, in the shape of dice is best, and continue stirring until the kidneys are cooked, taking care to do them slowly; at the last moment, season with pepper and salt, and serve very hot. Garnish the dish with fried sippets of bread.

To Cook Mushrooms

Puree Of Mushrooms. To Serve With Broiled Chicken, Cutlets, Etc

Chop up a pound of fresh champignons, simmer them in a little milk or broth for ten minutes, then add the crumb of a French roll; stir over the fire until all liquid is absorbed, put in an ounce of fresh butter, pepper, and salt, and rub through a wire strainer. Put the purce back into the stewpan and let it get hot before serving. Should the 'puree seem too stiff, add a little milk or cream whilst rubbing it through the strainer.

Baked Mushrooms

Trim the stalks and carefully peel the mushrooms; put a slice of butter in a baking dish; when melted, lay in the mushrooms, pepper and salt the upper side, and allow them to cook very slowly for about half-an-hour. The exact time for cooking mushrooms cannot be given, but fine fresh ones cook much more rapidly and yield more gravy than when stale or of inferior kinds.

Mushrooms With Cream Sauce

Dissolve two ounces of butter in a stewpan, mix in the yolks of two eggs lightly beaten, and the juice of a lemon, with a pinch of pepper and salt, stir this over the fire until thickened. Prepare half-a-pint of plain butter sauce, and mix all gradually together. Have ready a small tin of champignons, or about the same quantity of fresh mushrooms chopped, and stewed gently for ten minutes in a little broth or milk. Stir them with the liquor in which they have stewed into the sauce, and let them stand for a few minutes, then spread the mixture on to neat slices of toasted bread. The sauce must be a good thickness, so that it will not run off the toast, and care must taken in the first process not to oil the butter or make the sauce lumpy.

Sausages

Perhaps there is no article of diet more universally popular than the sausage, and it is one of great antiquity. In the "Forme of Cury," a cookery book compiled by the cooks of Richard the Second, we find reference to the "sausage," which, although it differed somewhat from those of modern times, was composed of similar material.

Mrs. Raffeld, whose book was published in 1769, gives a recipe for frying, but not for making, sausages, and Dr. Kitchener, writing early in the present century, follows the lady's lead. Cooks cannot do better than remember the Doctor's directions for frying. After saying, "Sausages are best when quite fresh made," he adds, "put a bit of butter or dripping, into a clean frying-pan, as soon as it is melted, before it gets hot, put in the sausages, and shake the pan for a minute, and keep turning them (be careful not to break or prick them in so doing) fry them over a very slow fire till they are nicely browned on all sides. The secret of frying sausages is, to let them get hot very gradually, they then will not break, if they are not stale. The common practice to prevent them bursting, is to prick them with a fork, but this lets the gravy out." Following these directions, the doctor remarks, "Sausages are a convenient, easily digestible, and invigorating food for the aged, and those whose teeth are defective." Whilst fully endorsing these remarks, we would observe that they apply only to home-made sausages, for it is almost unnecessary to allude to the doubtful character of the London sausage as sold in the majority of shops. Probably those purveyed in fashionable quarters of the town are not composed of unwholesome material, but then they are far too expensive for persons of moderate means, and are extravagant, as bread is largely used, and meat may be said to be merely the flavouring matter. The machines in use in the large manufactories will grind any kind of meat to a pulp so that it is impossible to discover of what the sausages are composed, and there is perhaps no manufactured article which offers such temptations for the substitution of inferior for good material as the sausage. The spices and flavouring substances employed are most cleverly chosen, and any flavour required is by their use imparted to the meat. Thus, liver, lights, and other inferior portions of beef, mutton, pork, or any other of - shall we say - the edible animals, are all ground up together, and then seasoned according to the requirements of customers, as beef or pork sausages, bread and water being added in large proportions.

It is surprising to find that in these days, when sausages can be most easily and successfully made at home by a small machine, that they are less so made than when there were no machines suitable for household use. Even thirty years ago all home-made sausages were laboriously chopped and filled by hand, the last process being one requiring a good deal of skill and patience. One of the first difficulties which has to be met is procuring the skins for the sausages, these can always be had at shops where the machines are sold, and the butcher who supplies the pork should, on due notice being given, obtain them fresh for customers. There are a number of sausagemachines of various makers, but Kent's Combination Mincer is by far the best and most useful, as it chops suet, prepares meat for potting without the aid of the pestle and mortar, and does, besides, with different simple adjustments, a variety of mincing operations.

Pork Sausages

When a pig is cut up in the country, sausages are usually made of the trimmings, but when the meat has to be bought the chump end of a fore loin or blade bone will be found to answer best. The fine, well-fed meat of a full-grown pig, known in London as "hog-meat," is every way preferable to that called "dairy-fed pork." The fat should be nearly in equal proportion to the lean, but of course this matter must be arranged to suit the taste of those who will eat the sausages. If young pork is used, remove the skin as thinly as you can (it is useful for various purposes), and then with a sharp knife cut all the flesh from the bones, take away all sinews and gristle, and cut the fat and lean into strips. Some mincing machines require the meat longer than others - for the "Combination" cut it into pieces about an inch long and half-an-inch thick. To each pound of meat put half-a-gill of gravy made from the bones, or water will do, then mix equally with it two ounces of bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful of salt, a small one of black pepper and of dried sage. The seasoning should be well mixed with the bread, as the meat will then be flavoured properly throughout the mass. Arrange the skin on the filler, tie it at the end, put the meat, a little at a time, into the hopper, turn the handle of the machine briskly, and take care the skin is only lightly filled. When the sausages are made, tie the skin at the other end, pinch them into shape, and then loop them by passing one through another, giving a twist to each as you do them. Fifteen to twenty minutes should be allowed for frying sausages, and when done they should be nicely browned. A little butter or lard is best for frying, and some pieces of light bread may be fried in it when the sausages are done, and placed round the dish by way of garnish.

Sausage skins, especially if preserved, should be well soaked before using, or they may make the sausages too salt. It is a good plan to put the skin on the water-tap and allow the water to run through it, as thus it will be well washed on the inside.

Beef Sausages

Although good sausages may be made from the coarser parts of prime beef, it will be found best to use "buttock steak," or, failing that, any tender, juicy steak. Take six ounces of beef suet to a pound of lean beef, two ounces of bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful of salt, one of black pepper, and of sweet herbs dried and sifted: proceed as for pork sausages. Fry them slowly, but for rather less time than those made of pork.

Veal And Ham Sausages

It will be necessary to have cutlet or the best end of the neck for veal sausages. To each pound of veal use half-a-pound of ham or bacon, about three ounces lean and five ounces fat. Season with a small teaspoonful of pepper, be careful not to use too much salt, as the ham may give almost enough: in any case a very small teaspoonful will suffice. Moisten the meat with water, or gravy made from the trimmings of veal and ham, and proceed as for pork sausages. An ounce of bread to the pound of meat can be used if desired.

Meat Pies

Bath Polonies

Mince pork as for sausages, season it with coriander, allspice, long pepper, pepper and salt. Bullock's skins must be used, and must not be filled too tightly. Put the polonies into warm water with a little red sanders to colour the skins, let them get hot very gradually, and as soon as the water is approaching boiling-point reduce the heat, because if the polonies boil the skins will burst. About half-an-hour will cook them in the hot water, and when done they will look firm and plump.

Rump Steak Pie

Put a layer of fine tender rump steak, or of fillet steak at the bottom of a pie-dish, sprinkle with pepper and salt, allowing a large teaspoonful of salt and a small one of pepper to each pound of steak. Skin and split some sheep's kidneys - two are a fair allowance to a pound of steak - cut each in four slices the long way of the kidney, and lay them on the steak. Mushrooms may be used either as an addition or instead of the kidneys. Place another layer of steak over these and fill up the dish with stock or water. An onion minced and boiled in the water or stock for the gravy is an excellent addition. The steak should be freed from all fat, which never bakes well, and makes the pie greasy and indigestible.

Having put all the materials in the dish, cover up the pie with puff pastry as at p. 215, and bake in a moderate oven until the gravy boils, and the crust is firm in the centre.

For a family pie, use beef instead of mutton kidney, and add a few slices of raw potato. For the crust use suet very finely shred, roll it in with the dry flour a little at a time. Make it into a paste with half-a-pint of water to a pound of flour. Three-quarters of a pound of suet to a pound of flour makes a good crust, but a little more suet may be allowed with advantage. Roll the paste out as thin as puff-pastry, beating it occasionally to break up the suet; put four or five layers on the edge of the dish, and do not make the cover too thick.

Veal And Ham Pie

Make and raise the crust in the same manner as for pork pie (p. 41). Cut a pound of veal cutlet, or of the meat of the best end of the neck into dice, and cut up in like manner a quarter of a pound of ham in about equal proportions of fat and lean. Mix the veal and ham together, season with a teaspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of black pepper, put the meat in the crust, finish as for pork pie. Make a teacupful of gravy from the veal trimmings, add to it a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's gelatine. When the pie is nearly cold, take off the rose at the top, make a hole and pour the jelly into it through a funnel, and when this is done replace the ornament, and let the pie stand until perfectly cold.

Chicken Pie

Boil a chicken very gently for three-quarters of an hour with half-a-pound of bacon, two onions, and a sprig of thyme and parsley, half-a-teaspoonful of salt, and three pints of water. Take up the chicken and remove all the meat carefully from the bones, which return to the liquor and allow it to boil fast until reduced to half-a-pint, then strain it. Cut up the bacon boiled with the chicken into thin slices, lay them at the bottom of a tart-dish, and arrange over it the meat of the chicken. Roll half-a-pound of sausage-meat or veal and ham forcemeat into small balls, using the yolk of an egg to bind it. Lay these between the pieces of chicken, and, over all, the remaining slices of bacon. Having taken off the fat, season the gravy highly with about a small teaspoonful of white pepper, and one of salt, pour it into the dish, and put on a cover of puff-pastry. Bake in a moderate oven for an hour, or until it is done.

Rabbit Pie

If the rabbit is young and tender, three-quarters of an hour will be sufficient time to boil it, as for chicken pie. Proceed exactly as directed for chicken pie, adding the rabbit's liver finely minced, and a little minced parsley to the forcemeat.

Chicken and rabbit pies may be served either hot or cold.

Goose Pie

The remains of a roast goose are suitable for this pie-Out up the meat from the bones, which, with the skin and any stuffing which may be left, boil for two hours. When done, there should be a pint of strong gravy. Let it get cool and remove every particle of grease. At the bottom of a tart dish put a thin layer of good apple sauce, and on this the meat of the goose. Over this put another layer of apple sauce, and pour in as much gravy as the pie will hold. As there is no other seasoning, the gravy will require to be made very tasty with pepper and salt. If the pie is to be eaten hot, make a crust of shred suet.

If goose not previously roasted is used to make the pie it must be stewed for an hour or more. The apple sauce can be omitted, in which case a few boiled and minced onions can be used.

Pigeon Pie

Lay at the bottom of a large pie dish a thin layer of fine tender rump steak, and on this four pigeons cut in half, sprinkle with pepper and salt, allowing a teaspoonful of each to a pound of meat. Boil six eggs hard, put in the yolks and forcemeat balls between each piece of pigeon, and over them very thin slices of bacon cured without saltpetre, as this is apt to turn the contents of the pie red. If, however, the bacon is lightly boiled before putting into the pie this will not happen. Have ready a strong gravy made from beef, put in as much as the pie will hold, cover with puff paste (p. 215), and bake for an hour and a half in a moderate oven. A few mushrooms are a great addition to the pie.

Care should be taken to have the pigeons very fresh, and the pie should never be kept more than two days even in cold weather, as there is some peculiarity in the flesh of the pigeon which renders it liable to turn acid soon after it is baked in a pie, and in this state it is most unwholesome.

Game Pasty

The crust for a game pie can either be raised in the same manner as that for a pork pie, or be made in a tin mould; in this latter case six ounces of butter or lard may be used to the pound of flour. The greater the variety of game used to make a pasty the better, but a very good result may be obtained with two kinds. The great fault of home-made game pies is that they are often dry. To obviate this a good forcemeat must be made. Save the livers of the game, and if possible use that of more than one hare, beat them up in a mortar with five or six times their weight of fine calf's liver all previously simmered till cooked in stock. Add to this its weight of fat bacon also pounded. Mix the forcemeat well together, season with marjoram, thyme, and savory, a pinch of basil, cayenne pepper, and salt, and a very small shred of garlic. Bone and skin the game, lay a slice of fat ham at the bottom of the pie, then a layer of the forcemeat nearly an inch thick, put in the game, white and brown meat alternately, sprinkle with cayenne pepper and salt, then more forcemeat, and so on until the crust is full, placing over the whole of the contents a thick covering of fat ham. Let the pie bake in a quick oven for ten minutes, then moderate the heat and allow it to cook gently for two hours, or until the juices begin to simmer. Make a strong gravy of the bones and trimmings with a small piece of the knuckle of veal, and when the pie is cold pour in the gravy (see pork pie, p. 41).

Pate De Foies Gras

In towns it is generally possible to bespeak from the poulterers sufficient fat livers at a moderate cost. Six fine livers will make a good-sized pie. Make a crust of a pound of flour and four ounces of lard as directed for pork pie (p. 41). Cut up half a pound of calf's liver, lay it in a stewpan with a minced shalot, a sprig of parsley, a pinch of salt and of finely-sifted herbs, and half a pound of fat bacon. Allow these to fry very gently for a quarter of an hour, taking care not to let the liver or bacon become the least brown. Pound the liver and bacon in a mortar, if necessary add salt, spread a layer of this about an inch thick at the bottom of the pie; cut up the livers of the geese into neat pieces about an inch square, slice some truffles and press them both into the forcemeat, lightly sprinkle with salt and pepper, and then fill up the pie with forcemeat, put on the cover, finish as pork pie, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour and a quarter.

To Cook Galantine

Salt the rind of a loin of pork for a few days. It must not have on it more than a quarter of an inch of fat. When required for use soak it to make it roll well, lay it flat, and place on it a layer of lean ham, then one of sausage-meat, or other forcemeat, highly seasoned with pepper, salt, and sweet herbs, mixed into a paste with an egg and one-fourth of its weight in fine bread-crumbs, and made very tasty with essence of anchovy; pass a knife twice over a clove of garlic and stir the mixture, and, if not objected to, add a minced shalot.

Forcemeat for galantine should always have fat in equal proportion to the lean, then it will not eat dry.

On the forcemeat put a layer of cooked tongue, pig's or sheep's will do, if you have any pieces of game, fowl, or rabbit at your command they make an improvement. Add a few pistachio kernels, blanched, and mushrooms if they are to be had. On this press another layer of forcemeat, as before, and then roll all up tightly in the skin. Put it into a cloth and bind it with broad tape. Boil it in weak stock, or, if you have none, water salted and peppered, an onion or two, some cloves, a little fat, and a few bacon bones. It will take from three to four hours according to the size. When done, let it get cool in the liquor, then take it up, but do not remove the cloth, place it to press between two dishes, and put a heavy weight on the top. Let it remain twenty-four hours, then remove the cloth, trim the ends, and glaze it.

Fowls which are a little too old for roasting make excellent galantines. They should be boned, the meat divided into convenient pieces and placed at intervals among the forcemeat.

White Galantine

This is an elegant way of dressing a fowl for a ceremonial supper or breakfast dish, and is not difficult to manage. Have a fowl boned, lay it flat on a board, skin downwards, sprinkle it with salt and pepper and a very little sweet herb. Make an omelet of the yolks of three eggs, and another of the whites, lay the first on the fowl, then a layer of fat bacon or ham, then the white omelet, then a layer of lean ham. Over this spread about a pound of good highly-seasoned forcemeat or sausage-meat. A few mushrooms may be added with advantage. Now roll up the galantine tightly, keeping it round so as to resemble a roll pudding, tie it up in a cloth and bind with tape in order to keep the shape.

Boil the galantine very slowly for two hours in stock or salted water, with an onion and turnip, and when done let it cool in the liquor. Put the galantine between two dishes, placing weights on the top, and let it remain in this press for twelve hours. The tape should be unwound before pressing, but the ends must be left securely tied. Take care to put the joins of the cloth on the under side, so as to keep the upper side of the galantine smooth.

Prepare a pint of good white sauce, it must be thick, with milk, and when nearly cold, stir in half-an-ounce of Nelson's gelatine, dissolved in a gill of milk. Spread this with a large knife smoothly on the galantine, taking care to cover the whole surface. Dipping the knife occasionally in boiling water will assist the smooth spreading of the white glaze. Cut pretty little shapes of beetroot, leaves, flowers, etc., - ornament the galantine, and dish with these and small sprigs of endive and watercress.

To Cook Brawn

Mock Brawn

Get a fine sheep's head, thoroughly clean it and boil it for five minutes in salt and water. Then put it into fresh water with a pound of pickled pork, and boil both until thoroughly done. The addition of pig's feet or a little rind of pork thoroughly cooked is a great improvement. When done, carefully take the meat from the head, cut it up with the pork, mix with the brains and tongue, and finish as directed for brawn.

Yorkshire Brawn

Take a pig's head and feet, thoroughly cleanse them cut the head and ears up, put it into a stewpan, cover with water, and add a teaspoonful of salt, a good pinch of pepper, and chopped sage. Place it on the fire until it boils, then simmer gently until all the meat is off the bones. Take it up and chop it in a hot basin, add all the liquor in which the meat has boiled, stir up well, and put it into earthenware jelly moulds.

This is very good, but will not keep long in warm weather.

The American dish Scrappel is a variation of the above, a portion of which might be tried as follows :-

When the brawn is prepared ready for moulds, add a little more seasoning for scrappel, and, if liked, a little sage, put the brawn in a stewpan, and when it boils, stir in sufficient new white Indian corn meal to make it thick. Stir over the fire for ten minutes, pour the scrappel into dishes, smooth over with a knife, and when set cut it in neat slices, fry brown, and serve hot.

To Cook Croquettes

Croquettes

Croquettes of all kinds, fish, game, poultry, or any delicate meat can be successfully made on the following model. Whatever material is used must be finely minced or pounded. Care is required in making the sauce, if it is too thin it is difficult to mould the croquettes, and ice will be required to set it. Croquettes of game without any flavouring except a little salt and cayenne are generally acceptable as a breakfast dish. Preserved lobster, Bray and Hayes, or Moirs, make very good croquettes for an entree, and small scraps of any kind can thus be made into a very good dish.

Croquettes Of Salmon

With a wooden spoon beat up to a paste half-a-pound of cooked salmon and mix it with the following sauce :- Put one ounce of fine flour into a stewpan with half a gill of cold water, stir this over a slow fire very rapidly until it forms a paste, then add one ounce of butter, and stir until well incorporated. Mix in a small teaspoonful of essence of shrimps or anchovies, with a pinch of salt and pepper. Take the stewpan off the fire and stir the yolk of an egg briskly into the sauce, thoroughly mix it with the pounded salmon, spread it out on a plate until it is cool. Flour your hands, take a small piece of the croquette mixture, roll into a ball, or into the shape of a cork, then pass it through very finely-sifted and dried bread-crumbs dip into beaten egg and again into the crumbs. Repeat the process until all the mixture is used, put the croquettes as you do them into a wire frying-basket, which shake very gently, when all are placed in it, in order to free them from superfluous crumbs. Have ready a stewpan half full of boiling fat, dip the basket in, gently moving it about and taking care the croquettes are covered with fat. In about a minute they will become a delicate brown, and will then be done. Turn them on to paper to absorb any superfluous fat, serve them on a napkin or ornamental dish paper.

No more croquettes than will lie at the bottom of the basket without touching each other should be fried at one time.

Savoury Rice Croquettes

The quickest and best way to prepare rice for croquettes is to bake it, and care must be had to have it dry, or it will be difficult to mould. Wash a quarter of a pound of fine rice, put it into a pie-dish with a pint of milk, break half-an-ounce of butter in to prevent the rice getting hard on the top. Bake for an hour, or until the rice is dry. When done, take off the brown skin, and, whilst the rice is still hot, stir in the yolk of an egg; pepper and salt to taste. Let it get cold. Have ready some finely-minced well seasoned meat, or paste, prepared as for salmon croquettes, flour your hands, and roll up little pieces about the thickness of the fourth finger, and less than an inch long. Again flour your hand, spread out a spoonful, and put your meat in the middle of it, fold over the rice so as to enclose this, and make the croquettes into the shape of an egg. Finish as directed above. The quantity of rice given will make about twelve croquettes.

Sweet Croquettes Of Rice

Sweet Croquettes Of Rice are made in the same manner as the above. Substitute sugar for salt, and flavour the rice with grated lemon peel. Use a dried cherry, plum, or apple marmalade, and finish as above.

Kromeskies may be made of any kind of cooked fish, lobster, or oysters, of game, poultry, or veal. Oyster kromeskies are much esteemed, and if made by the following recipe are not extravagant. The quantities given will make eight kromeskies, the oysters used being large and fat :- Strain the liquor of eight oysters and add sufficient cold water to make half a gill of liquor, which put into a stewpan with a heaped tablespoonful of fine flour, work this over a slow fire until it becomes a stiff paste, then put in half-an-ounce of fine fresh butter, and stir until mixed in. Take the stewpan off the fire and work in the yolk of an egg, a small teaspoonful of Burgess' essence of anchovy, a pinch of cayenne pepper and of salt. Great care must be taken to have this sauce, or, as it is sometimes called, panacle, very stiff, more like a firm pudding than a liquid sauce. When this is ready, break up the oysters, - the beard and hard white part having been removed, - with a fish knife, and mix them with the sauce. Spread it out on a plate to cool, whilst you prepare the bacon and butter. Have ready a piece of the fat of the back of fine large bacon, from which you can conveniently cut very thin slices. The bacon must have been previously boiled for twenty minutes and be quite cold before cutting into slices as thin as a wafer. Put a heaped tea-spoonful of the oyster mixture on a slice of the bacon, roll it over in the shape of a cork, and, having made the whole number, let them remain whilst you prepare the following batter:- Mix gradually two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water - take care to keep this perfectly smooth - mix in a tablespoonful of oil or dissolved butter, the yolk of an egg, and a small pinch of salt. When ready to use, beat up the white of the egg to a strong froth, and stir it lightly into the batter. Have ready a small stewpan of hot fat. Care must be taken to have it of the right temperature, if too hot it causes the batter to fly off, and if not hot enough will sodden the kromeskies. When the fat is ready, dip each kromesky in the batter, take it out in a tablespoon, and dip it with the batter in the spoon into the fat. It will take less than a minute to cook, and when done will be a nice light golden brown. Put it between paper to absorb any grease clinging to it. Remove with a pierced spoon any little pieces of batter remaining in the fat, and finish the whole of the kromeskies in the same manner. If preferred two, or more, may be fried at one time, but in the long run nothing is gained by so doing. When all are done, place them on an ornamental dish paper, and serve quickly. Garnish with fried parsley.

If it can be procured without too much expense, calf's udder is preferable to bacon for wrapping the kromeskies; if the latter is used it must be remembered that it ought to be so thin, and of such fine quality, as almost to melt away in the frying. A well prepared kromesky will not be greasy or taste of the bacon, but be, as it is now sometimes called, a veritable "angel on horseback".

A quarter of a pound of chopped chicken, game, or veal will make about the same quantity of kromeskies as the oysters. Add a few minced button mushrooms, a little ham, shred parsley, or any suitable flavouring. The sauce can be made of good white stock, mushroom liquor, or water, and in the latter case be made sufficiently tasty with pepper and salt.

The frying batter will be suitable for any fish or meat dish, and for apple or orange fritters.

Fried Bread Cases

Cut the crust as thinly as possible from a French roll, which divide into two parts. Trim the ends of each piece, and they will stand like a basket, and be of the same height and shape. With a round cutter mark an incision in the centre, and with a knife carefully take out as much crumb as possible without making holes in the side or bottom, the object being to make a neat case which, when fried, will contain either minced meat, curry, or stewed fruit. When the cases are prepared, fry them as directed for fried bread (p. 97).

If preferred, a small tin loaf may be prepared in exactly the same manner as the roll, or pieces can be shaped from a household loaf.

Curries

These are made in great variety, and by many different recipes. Perhaps there is no dish which in England it is so difficult to make suitable to the taste of Anglo-Indians. The fresh fruits, the grated cocoa-nuts, the carefully prepared curry powders and paste which are readily attainable in India are not always to be found here, and for these reasons only general rules for preparing curries can be given. Captain White's curry-paste gives to curries the flavour of tamarinds and other ingredients used in India, but the curries most liked by English eaters are those which are lightly flavoured, and not too hot. Any kind of fish, meat, game, or poultry is suitable for curries, cold cooked provisions and vegetables answer very well for them. The remains of a roasted loin of dairy-fed pork is very good. If the meat has to be fresh cooked for it, choose about a pound and a half of the best end of the fore loin. Cut it into small chops, place them in a stewpan in which an ounce of butter has been dissolved, sprinkle curry powder and salt over the chops, and slice in two onions.

Put the stewpan on the range at a very low heat, and allow the meat to cook slowly for two hours in its own juices. If it becomes dry a spoonful or two of water or gravy must be added from time to time. When the meat is ready - it must be very well done - take it out of the stewpan, put it in a basin, set it in a saucepan of water and keep warm whilst you prepare the gravy. Put a gill of cold water into the stewpan, which will cause the fat to rise; take it all off, then put in a minced onion, boil it until tender, stir in a teaspoonful of curry powder, one of Captain White's curry paste, and a tablespoonful of fine flour mixed smooth in rather less than half a pint of new milk. Stir the gravy over the fire until thickened, put in the meat, taste if salt enough, and let them simmer very gently together for a quarter of an hour. Let boiled rice be handed round with the curry.

If preferred, instead of Captain White's paste, a sharp apple may be substituted, which should be boiled with the minced onion; a little tomato conserve is a good addition, or mushroom vinegar or lemon juice.

With some kinds of curry thin pieces of cooked ham are handed round, and boiled rice is universally served with them. The meat for curries is always so well cooked as to be eaten with a fork and spoon by those who prefer to do so. The best curries can be made in Captain Warren's pot, which is to be had at a moderate price.

An acceptable kind of curry is made as follows: - Cut two pounds of meat into small pieces, chop two or three onions, add salt, a little cayenne pepper, a teacupful of milk, and stir all together. Fry a third onion in a quarter of a pound of butter, take it out, and having mixed a spoonful of turmeric in a little water; stir it into the butter over the fire for five minutes, taking care it does; not burn. To this put all the other ingredients, with the fried onions, stirring well together. As soon as it boils add a little water, and repeat this as often as necessary until the meat becomes tender, when put as much water as will cover it, and let it simmer until the gravy is much reduced. This dish requires five hours to prepare and simmer it, as well as great care and attention during the whole process. Only sufficient turmeric to give a yellowish tinge must be used; if coriander is liked, it may be added.

Curried Eggs

Curried Eggs are used as an entree and a breakfast dish. They are first boiled hard, and then, either whole or in slices, re-warmed in a good curry sauce.

Dry Curry

Fry a minced onion in butter until lightly browned, cut up the flesh of cooked chicken legs, or any other tender meats, into dice, mix them with the onions, and stir them together over the fire until the meat is hot through- Sprinkle over it about a saltspoonful of curry-powder, and salt to taste. Having thoroughly mixed the curry-powder with the meat, pour over it a tablespoonful of milk or cream, and stir over the fire until the moisture has dried up. Celery salt may be used instead of plain salt, and some persons add a few drops of lemon juice when the curry is finished.

Rice For Curries

Patna is the best rice for curries. It should not be small or broken, and, if fine, costs as much as "Carolina." Well wash the rice, throw it into a saucepan with plenty of boiling water and a little salt. Keep the saucepan boiling fast for fifteen minutes, then try a grain of rice by rubbing it between the thumb and finger; if it crumbles it is done, if not, boil a few minutes longer. When done strain the rice into a colander, and pour quickly over it a small cup of cold water: this will cause the grain to separate. Then return the rice to a dry saucepan, shake over the fire for a minute, and it will be ready. The saucepan used for rice requires to be scrupulously clean, as if otherwise the rice will take a slight green or yellow tinge. It is almost needless to say that when properly cooked, rice is a very pure white.

Vol Au Vent

For the case prepare fine puff-pastry (as at p. 215). Cut out rounds, or shapes, with cutters made for the purpose. If a high case be desired there should be at least four layers of pastry a quarter of an inch thick. Each of these should be lightly wetted with white of egg. Place the case on a floured baking sheet, taking great care to keep the shape. With a cutter of the same form, but two or three sizes smaller, make an incision within an inch of the edge, take your sharp knife and cut down carefully round this mark to within one layer of paste from the bottom. Brush over the edges of the case with the yolk of an egg, and bake it in a good oven, care being had that it is not so hot as to brown the outside of the crust, which would prevent its rising. A pound case will take about three-quarters of an hour to bake; when done remove from the centre with a sharp knife all the soft greasy portion. When ready to serve, the case must be re-warmed, and can be filled with any delicate preparation of oysters, sweetbread, chicken, turbot, salmon quenelles, and other things, but with whatever is used a rich, highly-flavoured, yet delicate sauce must be added.

The following is given as an example:- Take the inferior parts of a chicken, such as the drumsticks, the back and the neck with all the bones, reserving the white meat either to make the vol au vent, or for some other entree; or, use a small young rabbit, with a slice of ham, an onion, a pound of the scrag of the neck of veal, an onion, and a dozen button mushrooms. Boil for three hours in two quarts of water, by which time it should be reduced to a quart. Strain the gravy, take off all fat, boil it in a stewpan without the lid until reduced to half a pint. Mix a dessertspoonful of fine flour in a gill of cream, stir it into the gravy and simmer for five minutes, add salt and cayenne pepper, then put into the sauce, which will very well represent a sauce financiere, pieces of cooked sweetbread, cut into dice, cockscombs, stewed button mushrooms, and, if you will afford them, truffles. Let all get hot through without coming to the boiling point, and lastly add a few oysters cut in quarters.

A good cook will be able to prepare the sauce and materials for a vol aw vent at a moderate expense, and it will often happen that the basis of the gravy is at hand from the boiling of poultry and the remains of that used for other dishes, the special flavour of the sauce being given by mushrooms, oyster liquor, or ham.

To Make Rolls

Sausage Roll

Roll out a square of fine puff-paste to about four inches. Put on one half of it a piece of sausage-meat rolled like a cork, and fold over the other half, joining the paste neatly at the edges, and place the rolls on a floured baking sheet as you do them. They should be allowed to remain in the oven at least twenty minutes, in order that the meat may be well cooked. It is usual to re-warm sausage rolls at the time of serving, but they are very good eaten cold.

Oyster Patties

Cut out three layers of puff-paste (p. 215), each layer having five folds, with the patty-cutters, and join them lightly together with white of egg. Make an incision in the centre of the patty crust with a plain cutter two sizes smaller than the outer ring, then with a sharp knife cut round this so as to loosen the paste nearly to the bottom of the last layer. Place the cases on a floured baking sheet and put them in a quick oven. When done, with a pointed knife, or the handle of a teaspoon, remove all the soft part from the interior of the cases, and, when ready to serve, put in the oysters slightly warmed in the following sauce:- Mix, for each dozen oysters, two ounces of flour with a gill-and-a-half of the oyster liquor, stir it over the fire, adding, by degrees, a gill of cream and an ounce of butter. When the sauce is thick put in the oysters, allow them to remain in it without additional heat for ten minutes, add a small pinch of cayenne pepper, and it will be ready for the cases. If the oysters are fine and fat, one will be sufficient for each case with sauce to fill it up.

Lobster Rolls

Cut up the lobster into small pieces, mixing with it all the soft parts of the body. Make a sauce as follows :- Put two ounces of fine flour into a saucepan with a gill of milk or cream, stir over the fire until it begins to thicken, then add two ounces of fine fresh butter, and work the paste vigorously over the fire until it is well incorporated. Take off the fire and add the yolks of two eggs, taking care they are thoroughly mixed, add a pinch of cayenne, a few drops of essence of anchovies, and mix the lobster and the sauce together. Roll out puff-paste four inches square, put a tablespoonful of the lobster in the centre, fold over so as to form a case, press neatly together and trim the edges. Place on a floured baking sheet and bake for fifteen minutes.

To Cook Eggs

Eggs And Bacon

A very relishing breakfast dish may be made by breaking eggs into a dish and toasting over it slices of streaked bacon, as fat as possible, allowing all the drippings to fall on the eggs. By the time the bacon has been slowly cooked, the eggs also will be done. Serve with or without the bacon, and if too rich pour away the fat which surrounds the eggs. Another way is to toast slices of nice light bread, or roll, and lay it on a dish before the fire, breaking the eggs on the toast and allowing the drippings from rashers of bacon to fall on both.

A nice little dish may be prepared by beating up an egg with a spoonful of milk or cream, a pinch of pepper and salt, and letting it set in the oven on a plate well greased with butter or bacon fat. The egg should be only lightly set, and it is an excellent imitation of omelet.

Hard Eggs In Gravy

The eggs should in the first instance be boiled as lightly as consistent with removing the shells. Four to five minutes will be sufficient. As soon as you take up the egg plunge it into cold water, which will enable you immediately to take off the shell without at all breaking the white. Have ready in a saucepan sufficient nicelyseasoned broth to cover the eggs. Let them simmer together for five minutes, then take the eggs from the broth and serve them whole on a piece of toast well moistened with the broth; or, if preferred, a slice of French roll buttered may be substituted. White sauce made from milk and flour, of the consistency of good cream, nicely seasoned, and flavoured with onion, may be used instead of broth, if preferred. Eggs which have been left from breakfast the day before may be used up in this way with advantage. Hard eggs may also be sliced and warmed in gravy.

Eggs En Surtout

Dissolve half-an-ounce of butter on a dish fit to go to table, break three eggs on to it. Beat up the yolks of two eggs, mince very fine an anchovy, six capers, a large pinch of parsley, about the same quantity of chives, or half a small shalot, a pinch of pepper, a grate of nutmeg, and salt to taste. Mix all well together. Whisk the two whites of egg, well mix them with the egg, anchovy, etc, etc., and pour over the three eggs on the dish. Put the dish in a hot oven, so that the eggs may set quickly; they must not be the least hard; two or three minutes should suffice to cook them.

Egg Balls

Boil three or four eggs for ten minutes: plunge them into cold water for a minute, and then remove the shells. Take out the yolks and rub them to powder with a wooden spoon, mix them with a pinch of flour and sufficient raw egg to make them into a stiff paste, add pepper and salt to taste. Flour your hands and roll the paste into little balls, - they should not be larger than marbles, drop them into a saucepan of boiling water and poach them for rather less than a minute.

To Make Porridges

Oatmeal Porridge

Boil a quart of water, drop in with one hand, by degrees, stirring with a wooden spoon in. the other, two ounces of oatmeal and a teaspoonful of salt. Let the porridge boil for half-an-hour after all the meal is stirred in.

During the boiling the porridge must be frequently stirred to prevent sticking to the saucepan.

When done pour the porridge into a bowl and serve hot, with milk or cream. It should, when finished, be like a delicate jelly, set, but not stiff.

Italian Maize Flour Porridge

Put one pint of water into a stewpan, when boiling add a little salt, then stir in with a wooden spoon or stick sufficient coarse maize flour to make it the consistency required, boil it for twenty minutes, stirring almost continually, pour it into plates, and eat with milk in the same manner as oatmeal porridge.

To Cook Macaroni

Macaroni Au Parmesan

Throw a quarter of a pound of macaroni broken into pieces an inch long into three pints of boiling water with a large pinch of salt. The saucepan should be large or the water will rise over when the macaroni boils fast, which it should do for twenty or twenty-five minutes. When done, strain the macaroni through a colander, put it back into the saucepan with an ounce of fresh butter, a small pinch of white pepper and salt if necessary, and shake it over the fire for a minute or two. Take the saucepan off the fire and stir into the macaroni two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese. Serve immediately with crisp, dry toast cut in neat pieces. If not convenient to use Parmesan, a mild, dry English or American cheese will answer very well.

Plain Timbale Of Macaroni

Boil a quarter of a pound of Naples macaroni with plenty of salt in the water for half-an-hour. When done, drain and let it cool. Well wet a plain half-pint mould or pudding-basin with butter, and line it with the boiled macaroni. Mince fine two ounces of any tender cold meat, veal is the best, chicken, rabbit, or game. Boil an onion in half-a-pint of milk until reduced to a gill, mix a table-spoonful of flour in a spoonful or two of cold milk, and stir into it, thicken over the fire, add a grate of nutmeg, and a pinch of chopped parsley. Take the sauce off the fire, stir in an ounce of butter and the yolk of an egg, and add the minced meat, to which a little ham or bacon will be an improvement. Put this into the basin, fill it up with the remainder of the boiled macaroni, put on a cloth, and steam or gently simmer, without the water touching the timbale, for three-quarters-of-an-hour. When done turn it out, and serve with gravy.

To Make Stuffing

The two stuffings, or, as they are sometimes called, "seasonings," in general use in England, are that which is used for veal, and, with certain modifications, for fish, poultry, game, and meat; and sage and onion. Experience and a refined taste can alone supply a cook with rules for making the first. The quality of the ingredients varies much, and care is required both in the choice of them - and so to use that the flavour of one does not predominate over another. Freshly-gathered minced parsley may always be largely employed in veal and similar stuffings, and is generally acceptable. The object of stuffing being to flavour and enrich other substances, it should never be mixed with flour or an insufficient quantity of fat. The following formula for veal and poultry stuffing is given as a model: -

Mix four ounces of bread-crumbs with three ounces of chopped beef suet or fat bacon, a large pinch of salt, black pepper and nutmeg, a large teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a pinch of sweet herbs, and a grate of lemon. Beat up an egg and use as much of it, about half should suffice for this quantity, as will make these ingredients into a smooth paste. For fish, omit the sweet herbs, and use a little essence of anchovy. For roasted hare or rabbit add a little port wine and use equal quantities of fat and crumbs.

An excellent and delicate stuffing is made by boiling light bread in milk to a stiff paste and gradually working in the yolks of two eggs and two ounces of clarified suet or butter to half a pound of bread. Pounded fish, especially anchovy, potted meat, game, or poultry, or any flavouring can then be added.

Sage and onion seasoning for ducks and geese, roasted ox-heart, etc, should be prepared as follows:- Peel the onions with a sharp knife, score each across in thin slices not quite to the bottom but so that the onion holds together. Turn it and cut across the other way so that the onion will fall to pieces neatly and evenly minced. When all are done, put them in a stewpan with half an ounce of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt to half a pound, put on the lid, and let the onions stand at a low heat for half an hour, allowing them to soften without burning, and they must frequently be shaken until they are more than half cooked. Then mix with them half a teaspoonful of dried, or a whole spoonful of chopped, fresh sage, half a teaspoonful of black pepper, and, if necessary, a little more salt. If the stuffing is required to be mild add an ounce of bread crumbs.

To Cook Spinach

Spinach as generally cooked by boiling in water is deprived of its flavour and fine dietetic qualities. There is no difficulty in cooking spinach according to this recipe, but care must be taken not to use too much salt. Wash and pick three or four pounds of spinach, thoroughly freeing it from grit, and observing that no stalks are left. Drain the spinach in a colander, and put it into a large saucepan, with a teaspoonful of salt - observe, no water - set it over the fire, cover with the lid, shake occasionally until the juices begin to draw. When the liquid boils, take off the lid of the saucepan and stir the spinach now and then to prevent burning. When perfectly tender, drain and press the spinach in a sieve until dry, it can then be served plain or as follows: Put the spinach, after draining, into a stewpan with an ounce of butter, and a table-spoonful of cream or milk; if more convenient the same •quantity of rich gravy may be substituted, stir over the fire until the vegetable becomes dry, make any nice little mould, not larger than an egg-cup, very hot, and press it full of spinach, turn it out and repeat the process, working very quickly, and keeping the shapes hot as you do them, garnish the dish with these shapes, or, if preferred, put the spinach into a vegetable presser, and when turned out, serve as a separate dish, or with eggs and toast.

Rich Gravy

Slice and fry four onions until a light brown, cut up a pound of gravy-beef into dice, fry it until brown; put these, a pinch of dried mushroom, a bacon bone or bit of ham, and four peppercorns with a pint and a half of water into a stewpan, and boil gently for two hours; strain, take off all fat, and if the gravy is not rich enough boil it up in a clean stewpan without the lid until sufficiently reduced; add salt if necessary. Gravy is often spoiled by adding raw flour as thickening. To avoid this melt an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan, stir fine flour in gradually until it becomes a thick paste, work it over the fire until it assumes a brown tinge, then mix as much of it as is required with a little boiling gravy, doing this by degrees in order to avoid lumps; add the thickening to the whole quantity of gravy, boil up, and it is ready.

It is a good plan to make thickening in this way for soups and gravies when at leisure, as it keeps some time, and if prepared in a hurry is generally badly done.

Cauliflower Au Parmesan

Break up a cauliflower into branches, wash, and boil them in salted water until tender; they must not be boiled too soft. When done, drain them, and dip each piece in dissolved butter, then in grated Parmesan cheese, flavoured to taste with dry mustard, pepper, and salt. Place the cauliflower neatly and close together on a tin dish, pour over it a little more dissolved butter, and bake in a quick oven for five minutes, and serve immediately.

To Cook Vegetables

Spanish Onions

Boil the onions whole for half an hour in water with plenty of salt. Drain, and return them to the stewpan with a small piece of butter or dripping and a little pepper and salt; cover the pan as closely as possible to keep in the steam, and let the onions stew gently for two or three hours according to their size and quality. Baste them with their own liquor occasionally, and take care they do not cook so fast as to cause this to dry up and the onions get burnt.

Radishes

Choose small red and white turnip-radishes, and never eat them when stale. With a small brush kept on purpose for vegetables prepare each one in clean cold water, cut the green tops away neatly, taking great care no grit is left on them, and trim the roots as equally as possible. When all are done place them on a clean cloth, wrap them up, shake lightly, and then arrange in circles on a dish, which will look all the prettier for a light border of watercress or small salad.

Radishes are not often served hot, but when young and fresh they are very good boiled. Wash and trim them in the same manner as for salad, throw them into plenty of boiling water well salted, and boil until tender, they will probably take half an hour. When done, drain, and send to table covered with butter sauce.

Watercress

Wash, trim and pick the cress, drain it in a colander, put it into a dry, clean cloth and gently shake it about until all moisture is absorbed. Arrange the cress in circles on a flat dish, and serve within an hour of preparing it, as it will lose its crispness if left standing too long.

To Make Cheese Dishes

Boiled Cheese

Put four tablespoonfuls of beer into a small saucepan, shred into it a quarter of a pound of good new cheese, and stir briskly over the fire until all is dissolved and it is on the point of boiling, then take it off instantly, for if the cheese is allowed to boil it will become tough. Have ready slices of toasted bread, spread the cheese on it, and serve as quickly as possible.

Grated Cheese

American or Cheshire cheese answers well for grating, and it is a useful way of using cheese which is cut low and not otherwise presentable. Take care the grater is dry and clean, and grate the cheese on to a butter or glass dish, which should be handed to each guest with butter. It is a good plan to have neatly-cut pieces of cheese rather less than an inch square, in the middle of the dish, so that any fancy in the matter may be gratified. These pieces, if not used, can be grated for the next day.

Mint Sauce

We all know badly made mint sauce, which has a heavy deposit of coarse sugar, and requires to be stirred when served to each person. If made as follows, the flavour will be very fine, and the sugar will not sink to the bottom of the tureen :-

Wash and chop very fine the leaves of fresh green mint, about a large tablespoonful, put it into the sauce tureen with a gill of water and allow it to stand one hour. Mix in by degrees four ounces of raw sugar, or as much as the water will dissolve, this done, add sufficient vinegar to give the required sharpness, observing that mint sauce should not be too acid.

Forcemeat Balls

Soak the crumb of half a French roll in milk, squeeze it as dry as possible, put it into a stewpan with a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and work it over the fire until it becomes a stiff paste. Add an egg and continue stirring the paste until it is again dry. Take it off the fire and thoroughly incorporate with it two ounces of pounded, potted, or sausage meat, add a pinch of parsley chopped very fine, and a few leaves of thyme, taste that it is highly seasoned and set aside until cold. Flour your hands, and roll up as directed for Egg Balls, fry them quickly in a little butter until a light brown.

Polenta

Put one pint of water in a stewpan, when it boils add a little salt, and stir in with a stick sufficient coarse yellow maize flour to make it very thick, continue stirring till the mixture is well cooked; which you can tell by its rising in bubbles, then take it out with a spoon on to a napkin and mould the paste into the shape of a ball; let it cool for a few minutes, then cut it in slices, lay them in a dish, and sprinkle each layer with Parmesan cheese and pour two ounces of dissolved butter over it; it may be eaten in this manner, or put in a brisk oven and baked.

The polenta, when it comes out of the stewpan very hot, is nice served with sausages or little birds; the latter laid on the polenta, and gravy over them.

To Make Sandwiches

Sandwiches A La Chateaubriand

Have rolls made to order as, for dinner, of the size usually sold at three a penny, let them be nicely rasped. 'The bread should be of the finest and whitest quality, and if made of Vienna flour will be rather more expensive than ordinary rolls. Cut a round from the bottom, within half-an-inch of the edge of the roll, set it aside for future use. Scrape out as much as possible of the crumb of the roll without making holes in the crust.

Prepare chicken and tongue, or any other meat you like, to fill the rolls as follows:- Mince very fine cooked veal and ham, or chicken and tongue, or oysters, or lobster may be used, and to two tablespoonfuls of the meat add one of reduced white sauce. To make this, stir over the fire until it gets thick, one tablespoonful of fine flour with a gill of milk, cream, or good white broth, then mix in two ounces of butter, stirring very rapidly to prevent the sauce getting lumpy or burning, add Pepper salt, a very small pinch of nutmeg, and a little chopped parsley. When the sauce is cold, mix it with the meat and fill the rolls, putting in the round at the bottom. Place the rolls tastefully on a suitable dish, either for supper, luncheon, or high tea.

Anchovy Sandwiches

Use the best anchovies, when taken out of the pickle steep them in milk for two hours, the bone will then come out easily. Wipe and trim the fish and cut them into pieces about half-an-inch long, mix them with sauce made as for Chateaubriand sandwiches. Cut very thin slices of brown bread, spread them very lightly with the sauce. Place on one slice, evenly and neatly, enough of the anchovy mixture to cover it, put over this a slice of the bread spread with sauce, press them together, cut into neat squares, and dish either on ornamental paper or on a napkin.

Anchovies are prepared as above for all kinds of hors d'oeuvres, for sauce, salad, canapes, potting, orlies, and toast.

Apple Tart

Divide the apples in quarters, take out the core, and pare them. Observe that apples are more quickly pared when cut in quarters than when whole. If the apples are of a moderate size, leave them in quarters, or at any rate in eight pieces, sliced apples are apt to be hardened by being baked with sugar. To a pound of good sharp apples, put six ounces of brown sugar and a gill of water, mix thoroughly together and put into a deep pie-dish. The crust is to be made of suet and must be eaten hot. If properly managed this crust will be as light as puff pastry made with butter, and is much cheaper and more digestible.

Take a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, "kidney knob" is the most free from skin, and is also the hardest piece; shave it as fine as possible, weigh a quarter of a pound of the best flour and take a little of the suet, with about the same quantity of flour, and roll together into flakes, repeat this until all the suet and flour are rolled together. Gather it into a heap on the board, and moisten by degrees with half-a-gill of cold water. Roll the paste out to the thickness of half-an-inch, beat it for a minute in order that any little lumps may be broken up. Now roll the paste out until as thin as a wafer, and then fold over to make it large enough to line the edges of the dish, and make the cover. Put two or three strips of the folded paste on the edges, then put on the coyer in the usual way, and bake the tart in a moderate oven for threequarters of an hour, or until the juice boils, and the crust on the top is firm to the touch.

For large families it is often difficult to put fruit in proportion to the crust. In this case, if the apples are boiled in a stewpan with a little water over a slow fire for a short time, they will so reduce as to allow nearly double the quantity of uncooked apples to be put in the pie-dish. In all cases where apples are of a slow-cooking kind, this plan should be adopted, as it prevents the crust being kept too long in the oven.

Currants and Cherries for tarts eat much richer if stewed before baking. Boil the fruit very gently until half cooked, then sweeten and put into the tart-dish. In the case of currant and raspberry tart, the currants only should be stewed, and the raspberries be added afterwards, as these last cook quickly.

Greengages and Plums of all sorts should be lightly stewed with a little water for tarts. Put the plums when stewed into the tart-dish, add sugar to the juice, and boil for five minutes, pour over the plums just before putting on the crust. By this plan, the steam of the hot fruit will cause the crust to puff up and stand high in the middle. To ice fruit tarts, brush over with white of egg and sift sugar over before putting them in the oven.

Puff Pastry

This recipe for puff pastry is not generally in use in private houses, but will be found to be simple and to take far less time and labour in rolling out than the old method. It is requisite to have the butter very firm and free from water, and those who wish to have very superior pastry will use Vienna flour, which is, however, expensive, and not to be had genuine in country towns. A great deal of flour called Vienna is really only good English flour, but the difference between the two is so great that when compared it is at once seen. True Vienna flour is almost as white as corn-flour, very soft to the touch, and when boiled for sauce thickening quickly, of a delicate flavour. If you use ordinary flour take care that it is dry, and sift it through a fine sieve.

Weigh your butter and flour in equal proportions, cut the butter into thin slices, take a little flour and roll it with a slice of the butter into flakes, proceed thus until all the butter and flour are rolled together; gather the Hakes into a heap and sprinkle them with water, about a gill and a half is required for a pound of paste. Make into a smooth paste with the hand, and then roll it out to the thickness of half-an-inch. If a pound of paste, divide it into four parts, flour the board and roll out each part as thin as a wafer, fold over four or five times, and use as required. Bake as soon as possible.

Excellent puff pastry may be made by using threequarters of a pound of butter to a pound of flour, but for the finest kind equal quantities of these are requisite. Good firm lard may be substituted for the butter, and three-quarters of a pound of it to one pound of flour will make a rich paste. This method, if followed, even for household pastry made with dripping, will be found to answer better than any other.

Short Crust

Put half-a-pound of butter into ten ounces of flour, mix a tablespoonful of castor sugar with it, and rub together. Beat up the yolk of an egg with two tablespoonfuls of cold water, or less if the butter is soft, make the paste very stiff, roll it out once, and use for tarts of fresh fruit, cherries, raspberry and currant, etc., and for cheesecakes.

To Make Dumplings

Apple Turnovers

Make a paste of lard or dripping in the same manner as puff pastry, using four ounces of the fat to eight of flour and a gill of water. Roll the paste out a quarter-of-an-inch thick, and cut it into squares of about four inches. In the centre of each square pile up baking-apples cut small, but not in slices, mixed with half their weight of moist sugar. Gather the edges of the paste together, press them and mark with a pastry-wheel, place on a floured baking-sheet and bake in a moderate oven for lialf-an-hour.

Baked Apple Dumplings

Shred a quarter of a pound of dripping, lard, or butter, and roll into half-a-pound of flour in the same manner as directed for puff pastry. Mix with a gill of cold water and roll the paste out to the thickness of the third of an inch, and divide it into square pieces large enough to cover up your apples. Peel the apples, with a scoop take out the cores, put a small piece of paste in each at the "bottom, and then fill up the cavity with moist sugar mixed with a little grated lemon-peel, or with a clove. Put an apple in the centre of one of the squares of paste, which pinch together at the top and neatly press into shape with the fingers. When all the dumplings are ready, put them in a greased pudding-tin and bake slowly for three-quarters of an hour, or rather more if the apples are large.

Boiled Apple Dumplings

Make a paste of flour and beef-suet in the proportion of four ounces of suet to five ounces of flour and half-a-gill of cold water. Proceed as directed for baked apple dumplings, and when they are ready drop them one by one into a large saucepan of boiling water, keeping them boiling rather fast for three-quarters of an hour, or longer if the apples are large.

How To Make Cheesecakes

Line patty-pans with puff or short crust, fill them with any of the following pastes, and bake. To prepare curd for Yorkshire Cheesecakes, boil two quarts of milk, and as it rises pour in either half-a-pint of sour butter-milk or enough vinegar to turn it to curds. Draw the pan to the side of the fire, let it stand five minutes, then strain the curds through a sieve, mix them with three eggs to halfa-pint of curd, sweeten, add lemon-flavouring, a few currants, and a spoonful or two of milk if the paste seems dry.

For Lemon Paste, which, if properly prepared, will keep like jam, dissolve, but do not oil, half-a-pound of fresh butter, mix with it two pounds of sifted sugar, then the juice and grated peel of eight fine lemons, and stir over the fire until this has become liquid, then beat in twelve eggs lightly whisked. Place the stewpan over a slow fire and stir the paste rapidly and continuously for half-an-hour, or until it becomes very thick. Put up in small pots, and when cold cover closely to exclude the air. The above quantities will make about nine half-pound pots. If the paste is long over the fire, or if the eggs and lemons are small, some deduction from this quantity may be expected.

Bath Cheesecakes

Let half-a-pint of milk boil, stir in two eggs lightly beaten, and boil together, stirring until a curd is formed, then mix in two ounces of soared bread-crumbs, and very gradually add a quarter-of-a-pound of butter and a quarterof-a-pound of sifted sugar beaten together to a cream. Beat up two eggs, mix them gradually and thoroughly with the other ingredients, then a quarter-of-a-pound of currants, a tablespoonful of brandy, a teaspoonful of rose-water, and a very small pinch of grated nutmeg and powdered cinnamon.

Cheap Cheesecakes

Dry half-a-pound of fine white flour, mix with it three ounces of crushed sugar, beat a quarter-of-a-pound of butter to a cream, mix in the flour smoothly and by degrees, and work in the yolks of three eggs and the whites beaten to a strong froth. Flavour with lemon or almond.

After the cheesecakes are baked they may be brushed over with egg, have a little fine sugar sifted on, and be put in a moderate oven for a few minutes to dry the icing.

To Make Omelettes

Omelette Au Confiture

Break three eggs into a basin, beat them with a small pinch of salt, a teaspoonful of sifted sugar, three tablespoonfuls of milk, and a few drops of extract of vanilla, for four or five minutes. Have ready in the omelet-pan an ounce of fresh butter, when it is hot and beginning to get brown pour in the omelet mixture, hold the pan still over a moderate fire for half a minute, then, with a silver fork, keep stirring in the middle or at the edges. When the omelet is beginning to set over the whole surface, and it is taking colour on the under-side, shake the pan round and round and when finished, spread a tablespoonful of apricot preserve on it, shake the pan, hold it close to the dish, and slide half the omelet on to it. With a jerk turn over the other half, so that the omelet presents the appearance of an oval, golden-coloured cushion. Take care not to cook the omelet too much - it is proper to have it rather underdone, or lightly set, on the inner side.

Omelette Souffle

Put the yolks of two eggs into a basin with an ounce of sifted sugar and a few drops of any flavouring essence, beat the yolks and sugar together for six minutes, or until the mixture becomes thick. Then whip the whites very stiff, so that they will turn out of the basin like a jelly. Mix the yolks and whites lightly together, have ready an ounce of butter dissolved in the omelet-pan, pour in the eggs, hold the pan over a slow fire for two minutes, then put the frying-pan into a quick oven and bake until the omelet has risen. Four minutes ought to be sufficient to finish the omelet in the oven. When done slide it on to a warm dish, sift sugar over, and serve instantly.

Souffle Pudding

This is a delicious pudding, and to insure its success great care and exactness are required. In the first place, to avoid failure, it is necessary that the butter, flour, sugar, and milk should be stirred long enough over a moderate fire to make a stiff paste, because if this is thin the eggs will separate, and the pudding, when done, resemble a batter with froth on the top.

Before beginning to make the pudding prepare a pint tin by buttering it inside, and fastening round it with string on the outside a buttered band of writing-paper, which will stand two inches above the tin and prevent the pudding running over as it rises.

Melt an ounce of butter in a stew-pan, stir in one ounce-and-a-half of Vienna flour, mix well together, add a gill of milk, and stir over the fire with a wooden spoon until it boils and is thick. Take the stewpan off the fire, beat up the yolks of three eggs with half a teaspoonful of extract of vanilla, and stir a little at a time into the paste to insure both being thoroughly mixed together. Put a small pinch of salt to the whites of four eggs, whip them as stiff as possible, and stir lightly into the pudding, which pour immediately into the prepared mould. Have ready a saucepan with enough boiling water to reach a little way up the tin, which is best placed on a trivet, so that the water cannot touch the paper band. Let the pudding steam very gently for twenty minutes, or until it is firm in the middle and will turn out.

For sauce, boil two tablespoonfuls of apricot jam in a gill of water with two ounces of lump sugar, stir in a wineglassful of sherry, add a few drops of vanilla flavouring, pour over the pudding, and serve.

Puddings

Swiss Pudding

Mix a tablespoonful of corn-flour smooth in a gill of cold milk, boil half a pint of milk and stir both together over the fire until thick. Beat up two eggs, stir them into the corn-flour after it is taken off the fire, sweeten, and add a little lemon or vanilla flavouring. Melt an ounce of butter in a Yorkshire pudding tin, large enough to make the pudding about half an inch thick, pour it in the tin, and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour, or until well set and a little brown. Spread a thin layer of jam over the pudding and then roll it, place it on a dish, and sift sugar over.

Castle Puddings

Beat three eggs, with a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, for twenty minutes, or until the mixture becomes a thick batter. During the process of whipping, the basin containing the eggs and sugar should be placed in another containing hot water, which should be renewed twice during the operation, so as to maintain the temperature of the egg-batter at not less than 90°. Flavour with grated lemon peel or lemon extract. Have ready three ounces of fresh butter, dissolved, and the same temperature as the eggs, mix them together, and, lastly, stir in lightly, but thoroughly, a quarter of a pound of the best flour, sifted. Brush over little cups or tins with butter, about half fill them with the pudding mixture, and bake from fifteen to twenty minutes in a quick oven. For sauce, mix a dessertspoonful of French potato-flour in two tablespoonfuls of cold water, stir it into a quarter of a pint of sherry made boiling hot, add the juice of a lemon, sweeten, thicken over the fire, and serve in a tureen.

Cabinet Pudding

Butter very thickly a pint pudding basin, and cover it neatly with stoned Muscatel raisins, the outer side of them being kept to the butter. Lightly fill up the basin with alternate layers of sponge cake and ratafias, and when ready to steam the pudding, pour by degrees over the cakes a custard made of half a pint of boiling milk, two eggs, three humps of sugar, a tablespoonful of brandy, and a little lemon flavouring. Cover the basin with a paper cap and steam or boil gently for three-quarters of an hour. Great care should be taken not to boil puddings of this class fast, as it renders them tough and flavourless. Make Brandy Sauce as follows:- Mix a tablespoonful of fine flour with a gill of cold water, put it into a gill of boiling water, and, having stirred over the fire until it is thick, add the yolk of an egg. Continue stirring for five minutes, and sweeten with two ounces of castor sugar. Mix a wineglass of brandy with two tablespoonfuls of sherry, stir it into the sauce, and pour it round the pudding. If liked, a grate of nutmeg may be added to the sauce before the egg, and, if required to be rich, an ounce of butter can be stirred in before the brandy.

Vanilla Rusk Pudding

Dissolve, but do not oil, an ounce of butter, mix in a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, stir over the fire for a few minutes, add an egg well beaten and half a teaspoonful of vanilla extract, or as much as will give a good flavour to the paste, which continue stirring until it gets thick. Spread four slices of rusk with the vanilla paste, put them in a buttered tart dish. Boil half a pint of new milk, pour it on to an egg well beaten, then add it to the rusk, and put the pudding to bake in a slow oven for an hour. Turn out when done, and sift sugar over the pudding. If a superior pudding is desired, boil a tablespoonful of apricot jam in a teacupful of plain sugar syrup, add a little vanilla flavouring, and pour over the pudding at the moment of serving.

Cocoa Nut Pudding

Choose a fine nut with the milk in it, grate it very fine, mix it with an equal weight of finely sifted sugar, half its weight of butter, the yolks of four eggs, and the milk of the nut. Let the butter be beaten to a cream, and when all the other ingredients are mixed with it, add the whites of the eggs whisked to a strong froth. Line a tart-dish with puff paste, put in the pudding mixture, and bake slowly for an hour. Butter a sheet of paper and cover the top of the pudding, as it should not get brown.

Pastry

Italian Fritters

Cut slices of very light bread half an inch thick, with a round paste cutter divide them into neat shapes all alike in size. Throw them into boiling fat and fry quickly of a rich golden brown, dry them on paper, place on a dish, and pour over orange or lemon syrup, or any kind of preserve made hot. Honey or golden syrup may be used for those who like them.

Irish Oatmeal Sandwich

Put two ounces of butter or dripping into half a pound of oatmeal, mix with it a small teaspoonful of baking powder, stir in quickly a gill of warm milk, pour the mixture into a greased Yorkshire pudding tin, and bake in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour, or until done. Turn it on to a dish, fold over in the shape of a narrow but thick sandwich, and serve hot for breakfast. If liked, a little jam or marmalade can be inserted in the folds of the sandwich.

To Make Compotes

Compote Of Fruits

Boil a quarter of a pound of rice quite soft; break it up into a paste, press it into a round mould about four inches in diameter, and to the thickness of two inches. When cold, turn it out of the mould, and place it in the centre of a glass dish. Boil the syrup of a tin of preserved apricots with half a pound of lump sugar for a quarter of an hour; put the apricots into the syrup, and let them simmer very gently for two minutes, taking great care not to break them or spoil their shape. Dissolve a small pot of red currant jelly, and boil in it for five minutes two ounces of fine coloured glace' cherries, the largest you can get. When done, drain the cherries and apricots, and let them cool. Place a row of apricots, in quarters, round the rice shape; then fix in between each quarter another quarter, keeping each row of apricots narrower, and tending to a pyramid shape. When this is done, place between each quarter of apricots a cherry, and some shreds of angelica cut to represent leaves. Mix the syrup of apricots and cherries together, and, just before putting the compote on the table, pour it round the base.

Compote Of Prunes

Wash the fruit in warm water, put it on to boil in cold water in which lump sugar has been dissolved. To a pound of prunes put half a pound of sugar, a pint of water, with the thin rind and juice of a lemon. Let them simmer for an hour, or until so tender that they will mash when pressed. Strain the fruit and set it aside. Boil the syrup until it becomes very thick and is on the point of returning to sugar, then pour it over the prunes; turn them about so that they become thoroughly coated, taking care not to break them, let them lie for twelve hours, then pile up on a glass dish for dessert.

Jellies

Very few cooks in these days make the gelatine for jellies of calves' feet, the process being both tedious and expensive. French leaf gelatine has of late been used, and is excellent; but the difficulty is to have the strength always the same. Nelson's gelatine may be relied on for purity and uniformity of quality, and will produce a bright jelly without any peculiar flavour of its own. The directions given with this gelatine are good, but in practice it has been found some additional details are necessary.

It is desirable, if possible, to soak the gelatine at least an hour, before using it, as it dissolves much more easily when this is done. Put one ounce of gelatine (Nelson's) to soak in half a pint of cold water, with the finely shred peel of two lemons. When it has soaked for an hour, put it into a stewpan with half a pint of boiling water, and stir over the fire until dissolved. Put half a pound of sugar, and when melted, add another half pint of liquid, which should include the juice of the two lemons and water only, if the jelly is to be plain lemon; but if of wine, sherry, good Marsala, or raisin wine, instead of water. Wash the shells of two eggs, and beat them up with the whites, stir them briskly into the jelly, which place over the fire, and let it come very slowly to boiling point, then continue simmering for five minutes. Take a cup and put the white of eggs from the surface of the jelly, gently into the bag, as this acts as a filter, then put a cupful of the jelly in slowly, and let it run through, continuing this until all is used. It should now be clear; but if it is not, keep warm that which has run through the bag, and once more pass it through. If the jelly is flavoured with wine, when all has run through, add to it a wineglassful of brown brandy, as this will it give a rich, golden tint. If the weather is cold, the given quantity of gelatine will bear a little more liquid, and will be stiff enough to turn out. Moulds of tin or copper are best for jellies, because they require to be dipped in tepid water before turning out, and the thickness of earthenware moulds makes it difficult to determine when the warmth is sufficient or not too much. Have ready a bowl or bucket of water, in which you can dip the mould just in for a second, taking care the water is only tepid - that is to say - not more than 80°. Now wipe the mould, loosen the edges of the jelly, taking care not to break them, with the end of a teaspoon, reverse the mould gently on a glass dish, let it stand a minute, then take it off, and the jelly should be perfect in shape, and as clear as crystal.

To make a jelly ornamented with fruit, have some very clear lemon jelly, of which put in the mould enough to cover it, about an inch deep. Let this stand until beginning to set, arrange in it strawberries, grapes, cherries, or any other bright fruit you wish, then, very gently with a spoon, cover them with the jelly, cold, but not set. Let this again stand until beginning to set, put in more fruit, then jelly, and so on until the mould is set.

A pretty effect is produced by the mixture of creams and jelly : it is managed in the same way as the above, taking care to have each layer so nearly set, that the cream cannot run into the jelly.

Great care should be taken in washing and keeping jelly bags in a suitable place, for if not scrupulously clean, they impart to jellies that peculiar flannel-like flavour, which destroys its delicacy. When done with, empty the bag of its refuse contents, turn it inside out, and at once put it into boiling water, which will clear it. Allow it to pass through two or three very hot waters, then squeeze it and when thoroughly dried - in the air if possible - wrap it in clean paper, and keep in a dry place. Before using, always wring the bag through boiling water, allowing it to get nearly dry before pouring the jelly through it. Kent's registered jelly strainer is an admirable invention, keeping the jelly warm, and enabling it to run through without being placed near the fire. Any waste of the jelly is also avoided by its use, as well as risk of dust or other mishaps.

Claret Jelly

Soak an ounce of Nelson's gelatine in half a pint of cold water, boil it until dissolved, add a bottle of good vin ordinaire, a pot of red currant jelly, and threequarters of a pound of sugar, stir over the fire until all dissolved. Beat the whites of three eggs and the shells, stir them briskly into the jelly, let it continue boiling for two minutes, take it off the fire, and when it has stood for two minutes, pass it through the bag. The jelly should be perfectly clear, and of a fine red.

Creams and Custards

Custard

The great art of making a custard well lies in the stirring, and when this is properly managed, a custard made with milk and the quantity of eggs given in this recipe, will be as rich as one made with cream and additional eggs.

Boil a pint of milk, stir in two ounces of lump sugar, or sufficient to make the custard sweet enough for the purpose required. Have ready the yolks of three eggs, beaten up, pour the boiling milk on them. Put the stewpan, containing the custard, over a slow fire, stir with a wooden spoon as briskly as possible for twenty minutes, or until thickening has commenced, then put the stew-pan on the coolest part of the range, so that it is impossible the custard can simmer, let it stand for a quarter of an hour, stirring it occasionally. When the custard is ready, pour it into a basin, flavour it with vanilla, almond, lemon, or brandy. Should lemon be the desired flavour, the finely shredded peel of half a one should be boiled in the milk, and be allowed to remain in the custard until cold. Stir the custard occasionally until cool, which will prevent a skin forming on the top.

This recipe is the ground-work for all creams made with custard, for ices, ice-puddings, etc., etc.

Whipped Cream

To half a pint of good cream put a tablespoonful of finely sifted sugar, and sufficient of any essence to give it a delicate flavour. With a whisk, or wire spoon, raise a froth on the cream, remove this as soon as it rises, put it on a fine hair, or, still better, lawn sieve, repeat this process until the cream is used up. Should the cream get thick in the whisking, add a very little cold water. Put the sieve containing the whisked cream on a basin, and let it stand for some hours, which will allow it to become more solid, and fit for such purposes as filling meringues. But, if the cream is not required to be solid, it can be used as soon as whipped. The cream which drains from the whip can be used over again, or to make custard, etc., etc.

Apricot Cream

Take a tin of preserved apricots, drain away the juice, and add an equal quantity of water, make a syrup by boiling with this half a pound of lump sugar. When it begins to get thick, put in the apricots and simmer gently for ten minutes. Drain away the syrup, and put both it and the apricots aside, separately, to use as directed.

To make the cream, mix two tablespoonfuls of boiled flour in a quarter of a pint of cold milk, stir it into a quart of boiling milk, add the yolks of three eggs, beaten for a minute, sweeten with three ounces of sifted sugar, and stir over the fire for ten minutes, taking care it does not boil. Pour this custard into a basin, whisk it occasionally until nearly cold, then stir into it an ounce of gelatine, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of boiling milk, and also nearly cold, taking care, thoroughly, to mix them together.

Rinse a quart-mould with cold water, put in a teacupful of the cream, then a layer of the apricots, waiting a minute or two before putting in another cup of cream, then another layer of apricots, and so on until the mould is full. Let the cream stand twelve hours, or more, before turning it out, and when it is on its dish, pour round the syrup of apricots.

If more convenient, the cream can be made without the boiled flour, but will not be so rich.

Lady Jane's Orange Cream

Boil the thinly-shredded rind of four oranges with a pint of new milk, and a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, for ten minutes. Stir with this half an ounce of Nelson's gelatine, soaked, and dissolved, strain, and let the cream get cold. Then begin to whisk the cream, and as soon as it seems likely to set, add by degrees the juice of the oranges with that of one lemon mixed with them. Continue whisking the cream until it is a white and light froth and is beginning to set. Rinse a quart mould with cold water, drain, and put the cream into it. In four or five hours the cream can be turned out. This is a delicious and inexpensive cream; equally good for invalids, and for ordinary use. If liked, orange syrup can be poured round the cream when turned out. The recipe page (288) will answer for it.

Rum Cream

Boil half-a-pint of milk or cream with two ounces of lump sugar and a bay-leaf, pour this on to the yolks of three eggs well beaten, stir over a slow fire until the custard is thick. Take out the bay leaf and let the custard stand, stirring it occasionally until nearly cold. Soak a quarter of an ounce of gelatine in a gill of cold water, and dissolve it by boiling, and let it stand until quite cool. Both the gelatine and custard being cool, stir them together until thoroughly mixed, add a small wine-glassful of rum, and put the cream into a mould, let it stand twelve hours before turning out. A syrup of capillaire flavoured with rum poured round the cream is an improvement.

Ginger Cream

Beat the yolks of four eggs, put them in a stew-pan with a quarter of a pound of preserved ginger, cut into very thin slices. Add two tablespoonfuls of the ginger-syrup, one pint of milk or cream, and sugar to taste. Stir these ingredients over a slow fire for twenty minutes, or until the mixture begins to thicken, taking great care t does not boil.

Let this stand until nearly cold, then add half an ounce of Nelson's gelatine, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of milk, and also nearly cold. Whisk the cream gently until it is beginning to set, put it into a mould and let it stand for four hours, or longer if convenient. Some persons think it an improvement to pour a little ginger syrup, mixed with half its bulk of brandy, round the cream when turned out.

Meringues

Whip the whites of six eggs very firm, mix with them three quarters of a pound of the finest icing sugar. As quickly as possible fill a tablespoon with the mixture, and put it on a strip of paper placed on a baking board; repeat this working rapidly until all the meringues are made, then sift fine sugar over them, and put them without loss of time in the oven, the heat of which must only be sufficient to dry the meringues and give them a delicate brown tint. When the meringues are coloured and feel firm to the touch, take them off the papers, and with great care scoop out from the inside as much as you can without injuring the case. When this is done, again place the meringues, the hollow side uppermost, on fresh strips of paper, and let them remain in the same moderate heat until perfectly crisp. When cold fill one case with whipped cream, place another over it, and if necessary to keep it in position use a very little white of egg. The meringues can if desired be flavoured with vanilla, which must be added before commencing to whip the whites of egg; thirty drops of extract of vanilla will probably be sufficient for this purpose.

The meringues must not be filled with cream until just before serving, as of course the moisture may dissolve them.

Meringues can be successfully made with a solution of gum dragon, and also with Effner's dried whites of egg. To render gum dragon more easy to dissolve it should be soaked for an hour in lemon juice.

A nice inexpensive cream for filling meringues may be made as follows: - Boil two ounces of sugar with a pint of milk and an ounce of Nelson's gelatine previously soaked, strain it, let it get cold, and flavour it with vanilla. When the cream appears likely to set, add by degrees the juice of half a lemon, and whisk it until it becomes frothy and thick. Put it aside and use as required.

How To Make Ices

The making of ices, like many other operations of the confectioner's art, is often rendered difficult by the neglect of the simple principles and precautions which, duly considered, ensure success. Thus, if the ice for freezing is not properly broken, and then immediately and thoroughly mixed with a proper proportion of salt, the process cannot be successfully carried on. Again, when freezing by the ordinary means, if the temperature of the atmosphere is much above 45°, the ice will melt too rapidly, requiring to be frequently renewed, thus entailing a great deal of trouble and expense. Although the making of ices can in experienced hands be successfully carried out by the old rude method, it will severely tax the powers of an ordinary cook, especially if she has many other things to engage her attention. A great economy both of time and material can be effected by the use of Kent's Horizontal Freezer. This machine is not expensive, and by its form obviates a great difficulty in making ices, namely, the tendency to freeze hard at the bottom of the pot, and thus prevent the thorough mixing of the ingredients. For its extreme simplicity and efficiency this machine is unrivalled, as by the mere turning of the handle, which could be done by a child, two quarts or more of ices can be made in less than five minutes. "The Family Ice-Maker and Cream-Freezer," without the aid of ice, of the same patentees, is very valuable for public institutions and large families. The best way of preparing ice for any kind of freezer is to put it into a sack or bag of coarse material, lay it on the ground, and break it up small with a wooden mallet. This done, to each two pounds of ice add one pound of common salt, and mix them thoroughly and quickly together. To make ices without a machine put the rough ice in a pail, which should have a hole stopped with a cork near the bottom, in order that water may be drawn off as the ice melts. Set the freezing-pot in the centre of the ice, and keep turning quickly about till the cream or other material is set. Open the pot every three or four minutes, and with a spatula work the ices from the sides to the middle, mixing and stirring all well together. When the icing is completed, which may be known by trying with the thermometer, if they register 22° you will be certain of a satisfactory result. Then cover your pot with fresh ice and salt, protect it as well as you can by covering over with old carpet or sacks, and let it remain until wanted.

The best kind of ice creams are made with cream, the juices of fresh fruits, sweetened, syrup or flavouring, and water ices of syrup, and water only. It may be taken as a general rule, that milk, cream, or custard, mixed with syrup or flavouring, can be converted into ices, and there is perhaps no branch of the confectioner's art in which so much variety or such novel effects can be produced. A little experience will teach the precise degree of sweetness for ices; it must however be borne in mind that it is difficult to freeze if too much sugar is used, and that spirits must not be mixed with either cream or water ices. To give richness, and a greater degree of firmness to ices, some confectioners use a small quantity of gelatine.

Care should be taken thoroughly to mix and to strain into the freezing-pot the material for icing, and also to cover it so closely that no salt can penetrate.

To Make Ice Cream

Ice Creams

The base of all first-class ice creams is as follows: - In two quarts of good cream dissolve one pound of loaf sugar, flavour as desired, and freeze as before directed. The product, when fruit juice has been added in due proportion, should be three to three and a half quarts of rich firm ice cream of the highest quality.

Flavours

For Vanilla use one tablespoonful of good extract of vanilla.

Lemon

Use three teaspoonfuls each of extract of lemon and lemon-juice.

Macaroon add two small teacupfuls of powdered macaroons, and one teaspoonful of extract of almond.

Coffee

Infuse four ounces of fine ground Mocha or Java coffee in a pint of boiling milk, stir the clear liquid into the cream and freeze.

Fruit Ice Creams

One quart of the fruit juice very finely strained, and one and a half pounds of fine white sugar added to the proportion of cream given above. Strawberry, raspberry, currant, pine-apple, orange, or any juicy fruit can be used, and when not in season the syrups will answer. French preserve of strawberry, with a little management, makes delicious ices.

To Make Ice Water

Water Ices

Boil three pounds of fine white sugar in two quarts of water to a syrup, add one quart of the juice of any of the above fruits. With strawberry and orange water ices use the juice of a large lemon.

Lemon Water Ice

Shave the peel off the lemons you intend to use, and infuse it for two hours in two quarts of water, strain and use the water to make a syrup, with three pounds of sugar. Add sufficient lemon juice, usually about one pint, to make an agreeable acid.

Cherry Water Ice

Pound the cherries and their stones, extract the juice, and add a little almond flavouring or Noyeau to give the full flavour of the kernel. Make a syrup as above. Always take care the materials for ices are thoroughly strained, and that all are well mixed before freezing. Water ices take longer to freeze than cream, and do not increase so much in bulk.

Ice Pudding

Make a custard of a pint of milk and the yolks of three eggs, two ounces of sugar, flavour highly with vanilla, and ice it to 30°. Then mix with it thoroughly half a pint of whipped cream, and freeze again to 22°. Have ready two ounces of dried cherries and sliced pine apple, and two ounces of royal biscuits, put a layer of the ice cream in a mould which is placed in ice, then a layer of sweetmeat and biscuits, and so on until the mould is full, pressing down each layer. Place a buttered paper on the top, cover the mould closely, and imbed it in ice till wanted.

Iced Coffee

Put a quarter of a pound of freshly roasted and ground coffee into the cafetiere, pour on to it slowly and by degrees a pint of boiling water. When this has all run into the lower pot take out the grounds, rinse out the percolator, and put in two more ounces of fresh coffee, boil up the infusion, and pour it gently over the fresh coffee. When it has again run through mix it with a pint and a half of new milk and half a pint of cream which have been scalded, sweeten with sugar or syrup, and put half of the mixture into the freezing-pot, keeping the remainder in ice. When the coffee in the freezing-pot is lightly frozen, mix it with the other portion and stir together. The coffee should be served with the appearance of having snow in it. Portions of the coffee ice can be mixed with that which is liquid at the moment it is wanted, and the remainder kept ready for use in ice. Coffee made as directed can, if preferred, be lightly frozen, and so served, in chocolate cups or punch glasses.

How To Keep Ice

The moderate use of ice in hot weather is a great luxury, and is said to be conducive to health; but persons who have not ice-safes or refrigerators are often debarred from its use, because they find it impossible to keep small quantities from day to day. Even so small a piece of ice as will weigh a pound may be kept for twenty-four hours in hot weather, with but little waste, if wrapped in newspaper and afterwards in plenty of woollen cloth - house-flannel answers well. The ice, thus wrapped, should then be put in a large pan or tub, be covered over with old carpet or blanket, and be kept out of a current of air. A portion of the ice can be broken off as required, and each time it is unwrapped fresh dry paper and flannel should be used, and that which is wet be dried for future use. Ice for the table is not wholesome unless perfectly clear, and after being broken should be rinsed in cold water.

Bread Making

Our daily bread is so common a thing that we accept it with almost as little inquiry as thankfulness. Some indeed have not time to consider how important it is that bread, "the staff of life," should be pure and wholesome, but many more, from idleness or indifference, suffer their families to consume bread which they are well aware does not contain all the elements of nutrition, and which is made in an uncleanly manner. Many people, too, decline to acknowledge facts - declare they are overstated, and themselves worried by the perpetual outcry made about the articles of daily necessity. It is certain that a great many persons of this class do not wish to be enlightened, and would prefer to be left in all the bliss of their ignorance rather than in any way exert themselves to provide pure bread for their families. It ought to be as easy to bake bread at home as it is to roast meat, yet in many families where the latter operation is successfully performed the difficulties in carrying out the former are said to be insuperable.

Persons who are indisposed to make the effort to bake their own bread, generally aver that the oven of their range is unsuitable for baking bread, that it has spoiled batch after batch. In almost every instance where the oven has been blamed to the writer it has been found, on going thoroughly into the matter, that due care had not been taken to rake out the ashes or cleanse the flues.

Most of the ovens of ordinary kitchen ranges will bake a good-sized family loaf to perfection, and when they are perpetually blamed it may be as well to remember that unskilful workmen generally complain of their tools. No doubt a brick oven is the proper thing, but then in towns it is only to be found in large establishments, and it is surely wise to make the best use of those within the reach of householders of all ranks. There is, besides, the alternative of sending the bread to the baker's oven, but then it is generally necessary to buy both flour and yeast of him, or he will not think it worth while to do it. The cost of baking each loaf is one halfpenny, which includes taking the dough and bringing back the bread. As a rule, a respectable tradesman will not cheat, but it is easy to guard against imposition by weighing the dough before sending out. The loss by evaporation on twelve pounds should not exceed one pound, and is generally less. The difficulty of procuring genuine flour such as country bread is made of, is another stumbling-block to persons living in London and other large towns; but, however much adulterated, however inferior the raw material may be, it can never rival the extraordinary composition which bakers dignify with the name of bread. Whether on the score of health, of cleanliness, or economy, it is impossible to urge too strongly the importance of making bread at home. Some persons, however, say that it is more expensive than buying it. With proper management it cannot be; and, even supposing the cost of the home-baked loaf to be higher, it must be remembered that that of the baker will bear no comparison with it in point of quality. Good housekeepers do not need to be told that the best is the cheapest in the end. In point of fact it is found after making exact calculations, and allowing for the cost of extra fuel, that a loaf of home-baked bread in London costs about the same as one from the shop; if, however, the flour is bought direct from the miller by the sack, and if brewer's yeast can be procured, it will cost less.

As to the operation of bread-making itself, there need not be the slightest difficulty; nor, indeed, if properly managed, is it at all laborious. Of course it makes all the difference in the world if the process is clumsily carried out. If, for instance, the water required to make up seven pounds of flour be poured on the whole mass, considerable labour will be required to knead it, and, besides, the bread will spread, be flat, and an unsightly loaf will be turned out of the oven. But if the required quantity of water be mixed with five pounds of the flour, and then beaten up to a stiff batter, the remaining two pounds being gradually worked in, a very successful result will be obtained with very little trouble or exertion of strength.

It is hoped that the following practical directions will enable housekeepers who have but ordinary kitchen appliances to place upon their tables, not only the sweet household loaf, but some lighter kinds by way of variety, which may, when necessary, tempt a delicate appetite.

Small and very simple machines are supplied by Kent for bread-making; they save much labour, and ensure cleanliness, and more perfect kneading than by hand. Ball's revolving ovens for baking bread before the fire can be had of the same maker.

Household Bread

The flour called "seconds" makes a more economical oaf for family use than the first quality; when, however, a very white, light kind of bread is preferred, "best whites" must be used.

German yeast should be perfectly fresh and sweet; in which state it is nearly white, and quite dry. Dissolve one ounce and a half in a few spoonfuls of cold water, and then stir into it three pints of tepid water; pour it rapidly over five pounds of flour, in which a tablespoonful of salt has been mixed; beat it up with the hand or with a wooden spoon until well mixed, then gradually work in two pounds more of flour, kneading it well. A little more or less water may be required, according to the quality of the flour - good flour, as bakers say, takes the most "liquor." When finished, the dough will be perfectly smooth, and not a particle will adhere to the hands or pan. Set the dough in a warm place to rise for an hour, then work it up with a handful of flour until it is stiff; divide it into two or three loaves, working them up into a compact shape. Put them on a floured baking-sheet, and bake them in an oven as hot as it can be without burning the bread, as it will then keep its shape. In about ten minutes the heat must be moderated and kept equal until the bread is finished. A five-pound loaf will take an hour and a quarter to bake. A skewer may be thrust into the loaf, and if it comes out clean, the bread is done enough, but generally the appearance of the loaf should indicate this to anyone having the least experience. If the oven is not a very good one, the bread will be best baked in tins. The above quantity of flour made as directed will yield over ten pounds of bread. If home-made or brewers' yeast is used, make the bread in the same manner as with German, but it must be allowed more than double the time to rise. About a quarter of a pint of brewer's yeast will be required for seven pounds of flour. If you can, get the yeast over night, pour away the beer or porter from the top, and cover the thick portion which remains with cold water. In the morning drain this off, and the bitterness of the yeast will be reduced. A live coal put into it has the same effect.

Should the brewer's or home-made yeast be at all stale it is desirable to "set sponge" over night, or at any rate some hours before the bread is kneaded. Mix the yeast with half a pint of warm water, make a little well in the centre of the flour in the pan, and with the fingers detach a little flour, and stir it in lightly until a thick batter is formed, then sprinkle flour on the top, cover over the pan with a cloth, and leave it to rise in a temperature of 80°. When ready to knead the bread, pour into the leaven the required quantity of tepid water slightly salted, and mix it gradually with the whole of the flour, working from the middle to the sides. It must be remembered that it is impossible to work the dough too much, and that when finished it should be very smooth, light, and dry. The oven should be very hot for the first five to ten minutes of baking the bread - about 570° - and then it should be lowered to 430°, or a little less. Very few ovens in England being fitted with thermometers, it is necessary to ascertain the heat by sprinkling a little flour on a baking-sheet, if it brown within two minutes of putting it in the oven, the heat will be right for beginning to bake the bread.

The addition of potatoes to bread in small quantities is generally approved, but not more than one pound should be used to seven pounds of flour. Wash, peel, and boil the potatoes, and when they are soft enough, break them up in the water in which they were boiled, rub them through a sieve, and use them, liquid and all, mixed with the German yeast, or the leaven of brewer's yeast after it has risen. A little flour of maize or of Indian corn is nourishing, and excellent mixed with wheaten flour, and the same may be said of the flour of rye, when it can be had fresh, and its flavour is not disliked. It is good, especially for the young, to have an occasional change in the kind of bread to which they are accustomed.

The method of making brown bread with flour "ground all one way" is exactly the same as that given above. An excellent way of giving white flour the flavour of brown is to boil a pound of bran in a quart of water for half an hour; strain it, and use instead of plain water for making the bread. A handful or two of bran may be mixed with white flour in making up; it gives variety, and is considered wholesome.

Unfermented Bread

This may readily be made, either with Limmer's self-raising flour, or with baking powder. Bread thus made is not only perfectly wholesome, but by many persons found more digestible than when fermented, and may be eaten as soon as cold, without the inconvenience which often arises from new bread of other kinds. With Limmer's flour directions are given, which, if closely followed, will ensure success. This flour has the great advantage of being mixed with the chemical agents by machinery, thus attaining a more perfect result than is possible by the hands. Whenever baking powder is used with ordinary flour, great care must be taken thoroughly to incorporate them, as, otherwise, little yellow spots appear in the bread, giving rise frequently to needless apprehension of some unwholesome ingredients. The great secret of success in making unfermented bread lies in expeditious mixing, and in putting it the moment it is ready into a very hot oven.

Care should be taken to ascertain that the oven is at a proper heat before mixing the bread; the baking sheet should be floured and ready to hand, and not an instant lost in putting the loaves into the oven. Only a small quantity of unfermented bread should be mixed at one time. Two pounds are enough for one operation, and should be divided into three or four loaves. Half-an-hour will bake them.

Limmer's flour, mixed with milk, or milk and water, in the proportions given on each packet, makes delicious breakfast bread. Cream that has slightly turned, mixed with water, is even better than milk.

Madeira Cakes

Beat three eggs for two minutes, add the grated rind of a small lemon, then pour on to them six ounces of lump sugar dissolved in a stewpan with half-a-gill of water. This syrup should be added to the eggs at boiling point. Put the bowl containing the eggs and sugar into a larger one containing boiling water, the object being to maintain the temperature of the batter during the whole process at not less than 90°, and in order to do this, the water in the outer bowl must be changed twice or thrice during the fifteen or twenty minutes required for whisking the cake batter. Beat the eggs and sugar together until a very thick batter is formed. To know if it is sufficiently thick, let the batter stand for half-a-minute. If when you again whisk it you find there has been no settling of the eggs, you may proceed to add five ounces of fine dry flour slightly warmed; sift it in and mix lightly and thoroughly. Dissolve three ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan: do this slowly, for the butter must not be oiled, and though liquid enough to pour out, must present the appearance of cream. Put the butter to the cake-batter by degrees, beating in each portion thoroughly before adding more. Have ready a tin cake-mould lined with a round at the bottom and a paper band, buttered and sifted with sugar. Pour the cake gently into the mould, leaving it about half full, and bake for fifteen minutes in an oven hot, but not hot enough to brown the outside of the cake. At the end of fifteen minutes the cake will have risen well, draw it to the mouth of the oven, sift sugar over the top, and place on it handsome slices of citron peel. This last operation of sifting sugar over is necessary to give the coating proper to light cakes of this kind. Shut the oven door and let the cake finish baking; it ought to be done in from thirty to thirty-five minutes from the time it is put in the oven. When done, take out of the tin and place upon a sieve or wire stand until cold.

Buns

Put a pound of flour into a deep bowl and mix with it an ounce of German yeast dissolved in a pint of lukewarm milk; let it stand in a warm place to rise. In half an hour knead in another pound of flour, and when the dough has risen well, and is very light, work into it a quarter of a pound of butter dissolved, but not oiled or hot, half a pound of sugar, a little grated nutmeg and ground cinnamon, and half a pound of currants. Lastly, stir in lightly but thoroughly, a heaped teaspoonful of home-made baking-powder. Have ready a baking sheet well floured, shape the dough into balls and place them on it, leaving a little space between each. Brush the buns over with the yolk of an egg beaten with half a gill of milk and a spoonful of sugar, and bake immediately in a hut oven for fifteen minutes.

To swell the currants, - after they are picked pour boiling water over them, and let them stand covered over with a plate for two minutes, drain away the water, throw the currants on to a cloth to dry them, and do not use until they are cool.

Or, after being picked and washed, whilst damp sprinkle a little flour over, and put them in a cool oven, turning them about occasionally. Sultanas are to be prepared in the same way for cakes. There is a slight loss of flavour from using the boiling water, but on the whole it is a good way of swelling the fruit.

To Make Tea-Cakes With Baking-Powder

Mix three teaspoonfuls of powder with a pound of flour and two ounces of powdered loaf sugar. Rub in two ounces of butter, and when ready to bake, make into dough with half-a-pint of skim milk with one egg well beaten and mixed with it. Brush over three pound cake-tins with butter, put the cakes into them, and bake in a quick oven for about half-an-hour.

Baking Powder

One ounce of tartaric acid, two ounces of carbonate of soda, two ounces of corn-flour. Mix them thoroughly together, rub through a sieve, and put away for use in bottles closely corked. Two teaspoonfuls will be required to make a pound of flour into bread.

Milk Bread

Mix a teaspoonful of salt with three pounds of flour. Dissolve one ounce of German yeast in a pint and a half of skimmed milk made lukewarm. Proceed exactly as for household bread. When ready for the oven, divide the dough into three loaves, set them on a well-floured baking sheet, and bake for an hour in a hot oven. When done, care should be taken not to put the loaves down flat, or the crust will be sodden with the steam. It is a good plan to have little stands to set bread on when taken from the oven. Any carpenter can make them for a few pence, as they are merely strips of wood nailed together in the form of the letter X.

Yorkshire Breakfast Cakes

Melt two ounces of butter in a pint of milk; mix in it an ounce of fresh German yeast, a good pinch of salt, and two eggs. Put two pounds of fine flour, and beat all well together. Let it rise for half-an-hour, knead, and put the dough into tins, allowing the cakes to rise well before baking them in a moderate oven.

For Tea-Cakes, add two ounces more butter, and two ounces of sifted sugar. Let them rise rather longer, as they should be lighter than for breakfast, and bake in a quick oven.

To Make Yeast

Boil and mash one pound of potatoes, mix with them a quarter of a pound of coarse raw sugar and a teaspoonful of salt, add a quart of tepid water, and let the mixture stand in a warm place for twenty-four hours; then boil a small handful of hops for ten minutes in half-a-pint of water, strain, and add the liquor to the yeast. Again let it stand for twenty-four hours; if it does not then ferment, get a little brewer's yeast, and let it work for twenty-four hours; then strain it and it is fit for use. When cold, put away the yeast in stone bottles, the corks lied down firmly. Keep in a cool, dry place until wanted. About half-a-pint of this yeast will be required to ferment seven pounds of flour.

Plain Bread Cake

It is often convenient to make these of the same dough as the bread, which answers very well if a little baking-powder is added. When the dough has risen ready for baking as bread, to each pound work in a quarter of a pound of butter, lard, or dripping, the same weight of sugar, sultanas, currants, raisins, or shred candy-peel, and a little grated nutmeg and ground cinnamon. Or, the cake may be flavoured with whole or ground carraways. The quantity of fruit given above is small; double this will not make any considerable appearance in a bread cake. When all these ingredients are well mixed add a tea-spoonful of home-made baking-powder, put the cake into a greased tin, and bake immediately.

Crisp Oatmeal Cakes

Rub half-a-pound of dripping or lard into half-a-pound of oatmeal into which you have mixed a large pinch of carbonate of soda and of salt. Make into a dough with a gill of cold water, shake meal plentifully on the board, turn your dough on to it, and having sprinkled this also with meal, work it with the backs of your fingers as little as possible. Roll the dough out to the thickness of a crown-piece, cut in shapes - the lid of a saucepan or a glass answers very well for this purpse, - put the cakes on a hot stove, and, when a little brown on the under side, take them off and place on a hanger before the fire in order to brown the upper side; this done, the cakes will be ready for use. If to be kept, put away the cakes in a tin box in a dry place, and when required for table put them in the oven for five minutes to warm them through and re-crisp them.

Wafer Oat Cakes

Pour a gill of boiling water on to half-a-pound of oatmeal into which a large pinch of salt has been mixed, make it into a dough, turn it on to a board well covered with meal, work very slightly, roll it out as thin as possible, cut into shapes, and bake as in foregoing recipe.

Scotch Potato Scones

Rub one pound of cold boiled potatoes through a sieve, put them on the baking-board, and scatter over them seven ounces of flour. Work first with the rolling-pin into a paste, then a little with the hand until smooth. Strew flour heavily on the board and over the paste, which roll out about the thickness of half-a-crown and cut it into shapes. Lay the scones on a hot stove; when a little brown on one side, turn and finish on the other. Serve hot in a folded napkin.

Scotch Soda Scones

Put into a basin one pound of flour, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and a large pinch of salt. Mix these ingredients well together, then pour in half-a-pint of butter-milk, or sour milk, and make them into a paste. Turn it out on to a baking-board thickly covered with flour, work a little with the hand to make it smooth, then dust the paste well with flour and roll out to the thickness of a quarter-of-an-inch, cut the paste into shapes, which lay on a hot stove, and as soon as a little done on one side turn on the other, and bake until the raised parts are slightly brown. When the scones are done serve, or, if required cold, place them in a cloth, which will soften them, and let them lie until wanted.

In Scotland scones and oat-cakes are baked on a girdle, but as this is not used in England, the hot-plate must be substituted, and will be found to answer very well.

Rich Plum Or Bride Cake

One pound of butter beaten to a cream with a pound of sifted sugar, then twelve eggs beaten in two at a time, and when all are in, and the batter whisked for three-quarters of an hour, stir in gradually and thoroughly one pound of dried and sifted flour, then add a pound-and-a-half of currants and the same quantity of raisins, both chopped, a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds pounded, half-a-pound of candy peel minced very fine, the grated rind of an orange and a lemon, and a gill of brandy. If there is any suspicion that the cake will not be light, a teaspoonful of home-made baking-powder should be mixed in the moment before putting the cake into the tin, but this addition is not legitimate, and should be avoided if possible, as it is apt to make the cake dry. Pour the cake into a tin lined with buttered paper, and bake for two hours, or until perfectly done.

Rich plum cakes may, if preferred, be made by the method for Madeira cakes, by altering the proportions, and increasing the quantities of flour and butter to those given above.

Savoy Sponge Cake

Beat half-a-pound of finely-sifted sugar with the yolks of four eggs until you have a thick batter, then stir in lightly six ounces of fine dry and sifted flour, then the whites of the eggs beaten to a very' strong froth. Have ready a tin which has been lightly buttered, and then covered with as much sifted sugar as will adhere to it. Pour in the cake mixture, taking care the tin is not more than half full, and bake for half-an-hour.

Lemon Savoy Sponge

Rub lumps of sugar on the peel of two lemons so as to get all the flavour from them, dissolve the sugar in half-ateacupful of boiling water, and add it with the juice of the lemons to the eggs, beat for twenty minutes, and finish as directed for the plain Savoy sponge cake.

Swiss Roll

Make the cake either as directed for Savoy cake, or Madeira cake. Butter a Yorkshire pudding tin, sift over as much very fine castor sugar as will lie on it, and having shaken off all that is loose, pour in gently enough of the cake mixture to less than half fill the tin. Bake in a good oven; at the expiration of ten minutes from the time the cake was put in the oven draw it to the mouth, sift very fine sugar over the top, using all possible expedition, close the door, and bake for five minutes longer, or until the cake is done. Turn it out on to a clean sheet of paper, the sugared side downwards, on which spread a thin layer of any kind of preserve, and roll up the cake.

If preferred, the cake can be cut into rounds, and jam spread between each layer.

Caraway Lunch Cake

Break three eggs into a bowl, which place in another containing boiling water, whisk with them a quarter-of-a-pound of castor sugar for fifteen minutes, or until they become very thick. Keep this batter at an equal temperature by adding boiling water to that in the outer bowl. When the batter is thick, dissolve two ounces of butter in a stewpan, taking care that it is not oiled, and stir slowly together. Then sift and mix gradually seven ounces of flour, and half-a-teaspoonful of caraway seeds carefully picked and cleaned. When ready to bake, mix in lightly and thoroughly a small teaspoonful of homemade baking-powder, put the cake into a buttered tin, and bake for half-an-hour.

Cocoa Nut Cakes

Grate two ounces of cocoa-nut, mix it with a quarter of a pound of finely-sifted sugar, and the whites of three eggs beaten to a very strong froth. This will make a stiff paste; but if the eggs are large it may be a little moist, in which case add a teaspoonful of corn flour. Put sheets of wafer paper on a baking tin, drop small pieces of the cake mixture on to it, keeping them in a rocky shape, and put them in a slow oven for ten minutes, or until they are done.

Cocoa Nut Rock

Weigh half a pound of freshly-grated cocoa-nut, add it to half a pound of loaf sugar, boiled in a gill of the milk of the cocoa-nut until it is beginning to return again to solid sugar, add the white of an egg well whisked, and mix thoroughly together. Spread the mixture, not more than an inch thick, in a greased pudding tin, and place in a cool oven, with the door open, to dry. Cut it in neat squares and put away when cold in a dry place.

Macaroons

Blanch forty sweet and twenty bitter almonds. Pound them in a mortar, adding half a pound of the finest sifted loaf sugar as you go on, taking care the almonds are reduced to a smooth paste. Whisk the white of one large egg to a stiff froth, and mix it with the sugar and almonds. Flour a baking-tin, and lay on it sheets of wafer paper, which can be bought at the confectioner's, and drop at equal distances a small piece of the paste. Bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes, or until the macaroons are crisp and the requisite colour. This quantity of material will make twenty macaroons of the ordinary size. When done cut round the wafer paper with a knife, and put the cakes on a sieve to dry.

Amandines

Blanch and pound to a very smooth, light paste three ounces of bitter almonds with a little rose water. Beat three quarters of a pound of sugar to a cream with half a pound of butter, then gradually work in the almond paste, then the flour, and having well beaten this, add the whites of twelve eggs beaten to a very strong froth. Bake about half an hour in small tins, as for castle puddings, turn out when done, and ornament some with minced pistachio-kernels, others with cochineal sugar, or they may be iced. These cakes can be made when the yolks of the eggs have been used for creams or custards.

Rice Cakes

Beat a quarter of a pound of butter to a cream, mix with it a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, the grated rind of a lemon, or any spice or flavouring preferred, and thoroughly beat together with the whole of one egg and the white of another; sift in gradually two ounces of ground rice and six ounces of flour previously mixed together, stir in two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, put in the buttered tins with bands of paper round, and bake immediately in a quick oven. This is a cheap and good cake, and very easily managed.

Rock Cakes

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter or clarified dripping into one pound of flour, mix in a quarter of a pound of raw sugar, half a pound of currants or sultanas, and one ounce of candy peel chopped as finely as possible, or, instead of the candy peel, a little grated lemon peel and a pinch of baking powder. Beat two eggs for a minute, mix them with the other ingredients; the paste, in order that the cakes may present a rocky shape, must be very stiff; if it is at all moist, the cakes will be flat. If, however, the two eggs are not sufficient to moisten the mass, add a very little milk or another egg as required. Flour a large baking-sheet, with your fingers put little pieces of the cake at equal distances, taking care to drop them on lightly, so that they will keep the rock shape.

Ginger Nuts

Rub two ounces of butter into half a pound of flour, mix with this four teaspoonfuls of ground ginger, a quarter of a pound of raw sugar, and a large pinch of carbonate of soda. Work altogether with two table-spoonfuls of treacle into a stiff paste, pinch off little pieces, and, having floured your hands, roll into balls, flattening each in the middle with your thumb. Place the nuts, with a little space between each, on a floured baking sheet, and bake in a moderate oven for about fifteen minutes.

Plain Biscuits

Break lightly half a pound of fresh butter into two pounds of flour, add a salt-spoonful of salt and work into a stiff paste with half a pint of skim milk or cold water. Knead this well on the board with the hand, roll out into a large thick sheet, and beat it very well on both sides with a rolling pin. With a round cutter divide it into thick cakes, beat each a little till about the thickness of a captain's biscuit, prick with a fork, place on a well-floured baking sheet, put into a slow oven, and bake a light brown.

Charlotte Russe

The Charlotte Russe is not necessarily expensive, but some little skill is required in arranging the cakes which form the case, so that it may turn out neat and compact. A plain mould is necessary, and the cakes must be of one size and shape, and not so stale as to be brittle. Line the mould first at the bottom and then at the sides with sponge finger biscuits, and set it on the ice. This case may then be filled with a cream, such as suggested for meringues, or with orange, lemon, or apricot cream. A rich puree of apricots, or strawberries, to which a little gelatine, and afterwards whipped cream, has been added, frozen, as for ice pudding, is excellent and appropriate for this purpose. When the mould is filled with cream, immerse it in the ice, cover it with a baking sheet, on which place some ice. Let the Charlotte remain in the ice for an hour, then turn it on to its dish and serve immediately.

To Ice Cakes

Beat up the white of two large eggs with the juice of half a lemon, weigh a pound of the finest sifted sugar, sold at the grocer's under the name of "icing" or "confectioner's" sugar, and beat it up a little at a time until all is mixed with the egg, and the icing is very white and thick enough to lie on the cake without running. When this point is reached put a large spoonful of the icing on the centre of the cake, or two or three spoonfuls if the cake is large, dip a table knife in boiling water, and with it spread the icing over the whole of the top of the cake, taking care to have it perfectly smooth. It will be necessary to dip the knife occasionally in the boiling water, taking care to drain it before using for the icing. Having finished the top of the cake, put a lump of icing on the side and smooth round with the knife. The process of icing will be conveniently managed by placing the cake on an inverted plate, on which it can then be placed in an oven with the door open to harden it. Confectioners put a small piece of stone blue dissolved with the icing, and this prevents it turning brown in keeping.

To Ornament a Cake for christening or any special purpose, with a needle or pencil write the name or motto in the centre, and make round the edge a bold running pattern.

Make a paper funnel, with the point just large enough to admit of a fine piping being forced through it. Put a little of the icing into the funnel, and gently pressing near the point cover the letters with the piping. If the cake is large three or four paper funnels may be required as they get soft after a time. Use the best writing-paper to make the funnels, and stitch them to make them keep their shape. Tin funnels with canvas bags can be bought for cake icing, and are made in various sizes. To colour the icing use cochineal, which can be bought ready prepared or made according to our recipe.

Almond Icing

Blanch half-a-pound of sweet almonds and an ounce of bitter, pound them in a mortar, adding a little rose-water as you go on to prevent oiling, and when all the almonds are reduced to a very smooth paste mix them with an equal weight of finely-sifted sugar. If the paste seems too dry, add a little white of egg, spread the almond paste on the cake, and allow it to become dry and firm before putting on the sugar-icing.

Almond icing can be made from bitter almonds which have been infused in spirit to make the extract for flavouring, and in this case no sweet almonds will be used. Almond paste can be made in a superior manner in Kent's Combination Mincer, by using the adjustment for potting meat, etc. A little potato or corn flour will be needed with the almonds for this method; sugar should not be used until the pounding is completed.

Orange Marmalade

A great fault of home-made marmalade is that the peel is generally hard. This defect is easily remedied by boiling the peel thoroughly before slicing. From three to four hours will be required, and it must be remembered that as the peel will harden somewhat when added to the sugar, it can hardly be too much done in the first process. Little if any advantage is gained by picking out the pulp of the orange, and much time is saved by expressing the juice instead, afterwards washing the fruit in order to lose none of the goodness.

Choose Seville oranges of a moderate size with fine smooth dark skins. Score the peel in quarters down to the fruit, remove it with as much of the white as will come without drawing the juice of the orange, throwing the quarters of peel as you do them into cold water. Put the peel into the preserving-kettle with fresh cold water to cover it, change the water three times during the boiling, and when the peel is tender enough to crumble when pressed between the fingers, drain it as dry as possible. Lay two or three of the quarters of peel together on a board, and with a sharp knife cut them into very thin shreds. Squeeze the oranges, and to every dozen add the juice of four lemons. Wash the fruit after squeezing, and use the liquor thus obtained to make the syrup. Weigh the shred peel and the juice, and to every pound (a pint of juice to be calculated as a pound) allow a pound and a half of lump sugar. To this quantity of sugar allow a pint and a half of the water in which the fruit has been washed after straining it, boil together, taking off the scum as it rises, for a quarter of an hour, or longer if the quantity is large. Add the juice of the fruit, and continue boiling until the syrup begins to thicken, still skimming, put in the peel and boil for twenty minutes longer, or until the marmalade will jelly.

A dozen oranges made by the above recipe will give twelve pound pots, the average cost being about fivepence per pot. Marmalade can be bought at a trifling additional cost, but even that of the best makers is inferior in flavour and quality to that made at home with reasonable care. A small machine for cutting orange-peel has lately been patented by Kent, High Holborn, and will be found useful where a large quantity of marmalade is required.

Mushroom Ketchup

The larger and fresher mushrooms are for making ketchup the better. Break them well up, and to each seven pounds use half a pound of salt, mixing well together. Let the mushrooms stand until the next day, when drain away all the liquor you can, add a little more salt, stir well with the mushrooms, and let them stand another day. Now press out all the juice and boil it slowly for an hour with a quarter of a pound of salt, a dozen cloves, and half an ounce of peppercorns and whole ginger to each half gallon. Put the liquor into a pan, and, when cold, strain it through a very fine sieve, bottling the clear liquid in clean quart bottles, and putting a dozen peppercorns and a dessertspoonful of brandy into each. Use new corks, and, having well-fitted, cut them down to the top of the necks of the bottles and seal them over so as to exclude the air.

Should the juice of the mushrooms not run freely after standing the second day, put them into a cool oven in pans, covered over, and let them remain for five or six hours, then finish the ketchup as directed.

The remains of the mushrooms should be put into a hot oven and dried, or in a V, or American oven, before the fire. It is well to put them for several days, after they appear dry, into the oven for a short time. Store in tin boxes in a dry place, and use in the same way as dried mushrooms.

To Make Preserves

French Preserves

The ordinary method of making jam in England has the merit of being rapid and tolerably certain; that, however, in use in France is far better for the small fruits, as it preserves their colour and flavour in a higher degree, besides keeping them whole. In the first place it is necessary to choose the sugar of superfine quality, and to have it broken in large lumps, the crystals being destroyed when it is crushed. In the next a proper preserving-kettle of unturned copper should be used, and above all the fruit must be of the finest quality, fresh and unbroken.

Strawberries and cherries are very delicious preserved by the following recipes: -

Strawberries

To each pound of the finest lump sugar put half-a-pint of water, or if preferred the juice of fresh red currants, let this boil, carefully skimming all the time, until it begins to get thick, and has the appearance of returning to sugar. Now very carefully put in to each pound of sugar one pound of flue fresh-picked strawberries, and let them boil gently for about a quarter of an hour, or until the fruit appears to be done. Pour the preserve into a basin, taking care not to break the fruit, and allow it to stand until the next day, when carefully drain all the juice from the strawberries. Put the juice into the preserving-kettle and let it boil until it will jelly, skimming it as before, then put in the strawberries, and boil them very gently from five to ten minutes, taking care to keep them unbroken. Put the preserve into small glasses or pots, let them stand uncovered for a week; if at the end of that time it does not appear to be satisfactorily made, the last process must be repeated.

Cherries

Choose fine large cooking cherries of a brilliant red, fully ripe, but not of a sweet kind, stone the fruit, and make a syrup of currant-juice, and proceed as directed for strawberries.

Raspberry And Currant Jelly

Put a quart of raspberries into a pint of currant-juice, let them boil slowly together until the raspberries are broken up, then strain the fruit through a sieve. Return the juice to the preserving-kettle, and to each pint allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Boil gently, skimming as required, for half an hour, or until the jelly will set. If a very sweet jelly is desired, rather more sugar can be used.

Conserve Of Plums

This recipe will answer for any kind of plum, but should the fruit be unusually acid, a little more than the given quantity of sugar should be used.

Skin and stone the fruit, which put in the preserving-kettle with a few spoonfuls of water to prevent burning before the juice draws, stir it well about, and boil until the fruit is thoroughly broken up, then rub it through a sieve to a fine pulp. Measure this, and to a pint allow twelve ounces of lump sugar, boil together, stirring constantly until the conserve is so thick that it breaks when dropped from a spoon. The kernels of the fruit should be blanched and added ten minutes before the conserve is finished.

Pears and apples, together or separately, make excellent and useful conserve by the above method. No water will be required for pears, but for apples, unless of a juicy kind, about a gill of water should be used.

Seville Orange Jelly

Lay the peel of six Seville oranges - it must be shred very fine - in a quart of water for twenty-four hours; strain out the peel, and boil the water with three pounds of sugar for twenty minutes; then add the juice of eighteen Seville oranges, or of as many as will make a pint of juice. Boil gently until the jelly will set, when pour it into small pots and keep closely covered. This jelly is excellent for invalids, and also for making a summer and slightly tonic drink.

Lemon jelly is made in exactly the same manner as orange jelly; but eight lemons, or rather more if small, will be required to the quart of water. In making both orange and lemon jelly the size and quality of the fruit must be considered; and if a strong flavour or bitter is objected to, less of the peel can be used.

Syrup Of Sweet Oranges

Cut the peel very thinly from a dozen fine sweet and two Seville oranges, as you pare throw the peel into a pint and a half of cold water. When all is done, boil the peel in this water for a quarter of an hour, strain it, and having returned the water to the kettle, put two pounds and a half of sugar. Let this boil gently for half an hour, removing the scum as it rises, squeeze and wash the oranges in water, making the whole quantity of juice thus produced not less than a pint and a half, strain and add this to the boiled sugar, let it boil gently for three-quarters of an hour, removing all scum. When done, the syrup should be as thick as honey. It is useful for making summer drinks, and as a sauce for creams and puddings.

Dried Mushrooms

Let the mushrooms be perfectly fresh, remove the stalks, lay them skin-side downwards on baking sheets, and put them into a hot oven, so that they may shrivel up quickly, but not get burned. They must not be left long in the oven at one time, but be put in every day until they resemble little pieces of leather. Store the mushrooms in tin boxes, taking care to keep them where they cannot be attacked by insects, and use for flavouring gravy, soups, etc. Soak the required quantity of mushroom in four times its bulk of water, let it stand for at least an hour before adding it to the gravy.

Should the mushrooms be large and juicy it may be necessary to scrape out the insides, which can be used to make mushroom juice in the same manner as ketchup.

To Cure Hams

To each ten pounds of meat allow one pound of common salt, one ounce of saltpetre, two ounces of bay salt, one ounce of black pepper, quarter of a pound of coarse sugar, half a pound of treacle. Rub the salt well into the meat, taking care that it is well covered at the shank bone. Let the ham lie in the salt for a week, turning and rubbing it every day, but always leaving it in the pickle rind-side downwards. At the end of the week add the remainder of the ingredients to the pickle, the saltpetre and bay salt being pounded. Let the ham stay in the pickle a fortnight longer, then drain and hang it up to dry near the kitchen range, and in about a month's time put it in a paper bag, thoroughly secured so that flies cannot get at the meat. For those who approve of it half a clove of garlic to the ham pickle is an excellent addition.

This pickle will answer for curing tongues after it has been used for the hams, and also for chaps, or for pigs'-heads intended for making brawn.

To Preserve Eggs To Keep For Twelve Months

Put two lumps of unslacked lime, about the size of your hand, into an earthenware pan. Pour on by degrees two gallons of boiling water. Soon after you begin to pour the water on to the lime, the latter will make a slight explosive noise; stand aside until it is quiet, and by degrees add the remainder of the water. Let the lime-water stand until the next day, stir it up with a stick, drop the eggs in one by one gently, and cover the pan over either with its own lid or a piece of board. The eggs should be put into the lime within four days of being laid, and can be added as you get them until the pan is full. If too many eggs are put into one pan, those at the bottom will probably get embedded in the lime and be difficult to get out. It is a good plan, gently to stir up the lime with the hand occasionally (there is no fear of hurting the skin), as this prevents the eggs at the bottom getting embedded. Take care that the shells of the eggs are perfect; and if the liquid in the pan evaporates, add, from time to time, a little cold water so that the eggs are always covered. Eggs thus preserved will be found perfectly fresh at the end of a year, or even a longer period.

To Pickle Red Cabbage

Choose the cabbage of a deep red colour, take off the outer leaves and cut the heart into strips. Put a layer of the cabbage into a sieve, sprinkle it with salt, then another layer of cabbage and of salt until all is used; when it has stood twenty-four hours squeeze and put it into a jar. If convenient add a beetroot sliced; it may be used raw, but is better if baked or boiled. For a large cabbage, boil an ounce of whole ginger crushed, an ounce of black peppercorns, and half an ounce of allspice in a pint of vinegar for ten minutes. Mix this with the cabbage and fill up the jar with vinegar. Let this stand for a day, then fasten down and keep as air-tight as possible.

Lemon Pickle

Grate the peel lightly from a dozen lemons; let them remain in salt and water for nine days, rubbing them with fresh salt every day. When taken out wipe them with a cloth, then put them in a stewpan, with three pints of vinegar, two ounces of mixed spice, and half an ounce of turmeric. Let the lemons boil in the pickle for fifteen minutes, put them in a jar, pour the pickle over, and when cold tie down with a bladder. The peel which has been orated from the lemons should be mixed with double its weight of sifted sugar, and will be useful for flavouring puddings. It should be kept in a bottle closely corked, or the grated peel may be dried quickly on the hot plate and be put away in a bottle for future use.

Useful Recipes

To Ripen And Keep A Stilton Cheese

If the family is small it is best to divide the cheese and use half at a time. Butter a paper and tie over the top of the cheese; mix equal quantities of ordinary Bordeaux wine and good beer, half a gill of each will be sufficient; dip a napkin in this and wring it out leaving it rather moist. Wrap tightly round the cheese, which keep in the wine cellar; repeat this process every week until the cheese is taken into use, when it will be found of a very fine flavour, rich, and moist.

Cochineal Colouring

Put a pint of cold water into an untinned copper stewpan with a pint of cold water and boil until dissolved, then put in half an ounce of cochineal and an ounce of salts of wormwood crushed fine in a mortar; let it boil for ten minutes, then stir in one ounce of cream of tartar using a wooden spoon, and, lastly, add half an ounce of Roche alum. When dissolved, pass the colouring through a flannel bag. Allow it to stand until cold, when put away in small bottles closely corked. The colouring should be very bright, clear, and free from sediment, as otherwise it will not keep well.

Lemonade

Shred the peel of a fine lemon and let it lie for half an hour in a quart of cold filtered water; then squeeze and strain the juice of the lemon, and having taken out the peel, put it and lump sugar to taste in the water; stir well together and if required to be drank in a state of effervescence, add half a teaspoonful of citric acid, and at the moment of serving a small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, or of bi-carbonate of potash.

To Make Wine

Raisin Wine

Good raisin wine cannot be made cheaply, and it is somewhat troublesome to make, as it must be run off into a fresh cask after it has stood six months, in order to fine it, - indeed, it is sometimes necessary to repeat the racking several times.

To each gallon of water allow eight pounds of raisins; chop them up - if stoned this may be effected in a mincing machine - put them into a tub with tepid water, and stir thoroughly every day for a month. Then strain the liquor through a sieve, pressing the fruit, and put it into the cask. If the weather is warm the liquor will probably ferment in a few days, but if it does not, put a toast soaked in yeast on a gallon of the liquor made lukewarm, and which, when fermentation has well advanced, add to the whole quantity in the cask. Do not put in the bung for ten days, and having done so, allow the wine to stand for six months, then draw it off into a clean cask, and allow it to stand for two months. At the expiration of this time, if the wine is tolerably clear it may be left for another six months with a bag of isinglass attached to the bung; but if thick must be again racked into a clean cask. This wine will not be fit to drink in less than a year, and will be all the better if allowed to remain in cask for a longer period. Brandy may be added in any quantity desired; but if the wine has been well made it ought not to be necessary.

Smyrna raisins are the best for wine-making, but are generally too expensive when fresh. Grocers in a large way of business, however, are often glad to dispose of old stock, and for wine-making, will put in good sound fruit at a moderate price. Raisin wine may be made of less fruit than the quantity given, but will not be so strong or good, or keep so well.

Orange Wine

Take eighty Seville oranges, pare them as thin as possible, pour one gallon of boiling water on the peel, and let it remain forty-eight hours. Pare off all the white part from the oranges and throw it away, squeeze out all the juice and add it to the peel, wash the remains and the pips of the oranges after squeezing in order to have all the goodness of them. Put all the liquid with the peel and juice with thirty pounds of good loaf sugar and sufficient cold water to make the whole quantity ten gallons, into a brandy or rum cask. Stir up thoroughly every day for a week, then put a toast well dipped in good brewer's yeast into the bung-hole. If fermentation does not commence within three days, put another spoonful of yeast. A hissing sound denotes the commencement of fermentation, in a fortnight after this put the bung in the cask, and let the wine remain for twelve months before bottling.

Cowslip Wine

To ten gallons of water allow thirty-five pounds of lump sugar. Boil the sugar and water for half-an-hour, with a handful of balm, of borage, and sweet briar. When cool, take these out, and put the liquor into a cask, with the juice and thinly pared rind of twenty-four lemons, twelve oranges, and three gallons of fresh, or two gallons of dried cowslip pips. Stir up the wine every day for a week, then put a toast dipped in yeast, and allow it to ferment for a week; add a quart of brandy, stop the cask closely, and allow it to stand for two months, when it should be bottled for use. If rather more sugar is used, and the fermentation allowed to continue for a fortnight, it will be unnecessary to use brandy. This wine is much improved by the addition of balm, borage, and sweetbrier; but if they are used, it can only be made during the summer months. This wine is greatly esteemed by cottagers, and it is a good employment for little children to gather the cowslips, which, if thoroughly dried and properly stored, can be kept for use when required.

Ginger Wine

To every gallon of water allow three pounds and a half of loaf sugar, two ounces of ginger, the juice and peel of three lemons, and one orange. Peel the orange and lemons very thin, pour a gallon of boiling water on them, and break up the fruit. Crush the ginger, and tie it loosely in a muslin bag; boil it with the sugar for a quarter of an hour in a portion of the whole quantity of water to be used. Mix the boiled sugar, ginger, peel, and fruit together, and put them into the cask, and then add the remainder of the water. Stir this up, and when tepid, put in a toast dipped in yeast. In ten days' time put the bung in the barrel, and let the wine remain for at least four months before bottling it. The colour of the wine will be improved by adding a little burnt sugar, and a bottle of gin or brandy may be put to it a month before bottling. It is a good plan to have a zinc or wooden tap in the cask, so that the wine may be tested from time to time. If it appears cloudy, tie some isinglass - two ounces to ten gallons - in a muslin bag, attach it by a string to the bung, and let it remain a month in the wine. Strength and flavour are imparted to ginger wine by adding raisins, half-a-pound to a gallon of water is sufficient. Split open, but do not stone the fruit, and put them into the cask with the ginger. This wine is excellent made on the lees of cowslip wine; and in this case it will not be necessary to use so many oranges and lemons.

Red Currant Wine

Pick fine ripe currants from the stalks, put them into a large pan, and bruise them with a wooden mallet. Let them stand to ferment for twenty-four hours, then strain the liquor through a hair sieve, and to each gallon of it put two of water and six pounds of loaf sugar. This wine should ferment without yeast, and if the quantity of sugar given is used brandy will not be required. Do not put in the bung of the barrel until fermentation has ceased.

Elderberry Wine

Pick the elderberries from the stalk, taking care they are full ripe, put them into a stone jar, and keep them in a cool oven until the juice is well drawn. Then strain the juice through a coarse cloth (squeezing the berries), and boil it with a pound and a half of lump sugar to a quart of juice, skimming it until clear and fine. Put a quart of this syrup to a gallon of tepid water, ferment it in the cask with yeast, and do not stop it until the singing has ceased. It is a good plan to make this wine on the lees of raisin wine; the syrup, if well made, will keep until required for use in this way. Half an ounce of cloves and the same quantity of whole ginger can, if approved, be boiled in a little water and be added to the wine with the syrup. If it is desired to have a very rich strong wine use rather less water than the quantity given.

Grape Champagne

For nine gallons of this wine use thirty-six pounds of half-ripe grapes, one-third of which should be black. Pour six and a half gallons of soft water upon them, bruise and stir frequently for three or four days. Strain the liquor from the grapes, and dissolve twenty-eight pounds of loaf sugar in it, then put it in the cask with a little yeast, and let it work for about a fortnight. When the singing has subsided add a bottle of brandy, and put in the bung of the cask. In six months it will be fit to bottle, and can be used in three months afterwards.

Gooseberry Champagne

For this wine the Warrington gooseberry is the best at the time when it is on the point of turning colour. When well made it is difficult to distinguish this wine from foreign champagne.

The fruit must be thoroughly broken up with a wooden mallet, a pint of water being used to each pound of fruit to facilitate the operation. Let the fruit stand to ferment in a warm place for three days, stirring it frequently with a wooden spoon. Press the liquor through a sieve, using a little water to get all the goodness from the fruit. To each gallon of the liquor thus obtained put six pounds of lump sugar and one gallon of cold water, put into a cask, and do not stop it for a month. At the expiration of this time put in two quarts of gin or brandy to ten gallons of wine, two ounces of isinglass tied in a muslin bag, and suspended from the bung. Let it stand for six months, when bottle it, tying down the corks securely.

To Make Cups

Claret Cup

Cut three thick slices of cucumber into a bottle of claret poured into a large jug, add a sprig of balm and of borage, a pint bottle of Seltzer water, one to two ounces of sifted sugar or crushed sugar candy, and half a wineglassful of brandy or Curacoa. Stir well together, place the jug, covered over, upon ice for an hour, strain out the herbs and cucumber, pour into a decanter and serve.

If there is not time to ice the cup, break up half a pound of clear ice into very small pieces, stir into the claret, and use less Seltzer water.

Badminton Cup

Badminton Cup is made with Burgundy, with an equal quantity of Seltzer water, and the addition of the juice and peel of an orange to the ingredients given for claret cup.

Champagne Cup

Champagne Cup has an equal quantity of wine and Seltzer water, an ounce of crushed sugar candy, the juice and peel of two oranges, balm, and borage.

Cider Cup

Cider Cup has a pint of soda water to a quart of cider, a wineglass of brandy, and the other ingredients as for Champagne cup.

Ginger Drinks

Ginger Beer

Crush two ounces of ginger, peel two lemons very thinly and squeeze the juice, put into a pan with one pound and a half of loaf sugar, and two ounces of cream of tartar. Pour on to this two gallons of boiling water, and when nearly cold put a tablespoonful of brewer's yeast, and let the beer stand until the next day. Strain and bottle it quite clear, tying the corks securely; this will be fit for immediate use.

Gingerade

This can be made without fermentation, and is a wholesome drink for children.

Crush a quarter of a pound of Jamaica ginger and boil it in two quarts of water for an hour. Strain the liquor through a jelly-bag, and boil it to a syrup with three pounds of lump sugar, skimming in order to have it clear. When cold stir in an ounce of citric acid, and bottle the syrup.

When required for use put two tablespoonfuls in a tumbler, and stir on to it half-a-pint of cold water, in which rather less than half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda has been mixed.

 

 

Rediscovering the Gelatine Factory

Introduction

 

The Gelatine Factory

A comprehensive account 1899

from Round About Warwick

 

George Nelson

 

 

Nelson's Emscote Mills 2009

 

 

T B Dale

 

Charles Nelson

 

The Nelson Brothers

 

William Nelson

 

George H Nelson

 

Sir E Montague Nelson

Charles Nelson's

Cement Works at Stockton

 

A Visit to

Messrs. G. Nelson, Dale & Co. 1880

 

 

Nelson Works

Tomoana New Zealand

 

Guy Montague Nelson

Nelson Village

Charles St, Warwick

 

The Lawn at Emscote

 

Nelson's Lozenges

 packaging & adds

Nelson's Club

Isinglass Wars

Swinborne v Nelson

 

Nelson's 1950's

Warwick Advertiser account 1953

 

 

Descendants of George Nelson

 

George Wyatt A city trade jubilee

 

 

Nelson's Heritage Walk

 

Gelatine and its uses

 

Davis Gelatine

 

Home Comforts

 

Mary Hooper

 

 

Mary Hooper Letters

 Mary Hooper Book Collection

 

Nelson's Home Comforts

Mary Hooper

 

Wives and Housewives

Mary Hooper

 

Little Dinners

Mary Hooper

 

Cookery for Invalids

Mary Hooper

 

Every Day Meals

Mary Hooper

 

Hints on Cookery

Mary Hooper

Good Plain Cookery

Mary Hooper

 

Handbook for the

Breakfast Table

Mary Hooper

 

Weekly Telegraph

Cookery Book

Mary Hooper

Our Dog Prin

Mary Hooper

Ways & Tricks of Animals

Mary Hooper

 

Lily's Letters from the Farm

Mary Hooper

Charles Wentworth Wass

Round About Warwick

Walter Nelson

Fleur De Lys

The Pie Factory at Emscote

Sir E Montague Nelson's Cuttings, Letters and Keepsakes Circa 1882 Randolph Turpin

 

Cookery & Home Comforts

Mrs Wigley

 

Byron Accused

 

 

SMITH V NELSON 1904-5

 

 

Mary Hooper Books Wanted

 

Rock's Royal Cabinet

Leamington & Warwick 1880

 

   

 

Poetry

Anthony Leahy

 

Paintings

Anthony Leahy

 

Art & Photography

Anthony Leahy

 

A Major Arcana

Kathleen Forrest

 

The Drumroom

Anthony Leahy

 

Compiled for the benefit of Warwickians and Others by Anthony James Leahy

 

 

 

 A Walk in Warwick

 

 

 

 

 

Book Wanted Handbook For The Breakfast Table

Book Wanted Wives and Housewives A Story For The Times

 

3 The Butts

 

 

 

 

 

PAT Portable Appliance Testing

 

Amber Leahy Graphic Design