Miss Mary Hooper Books
Click on Book Cover for Preface
Nelson's Home Comforts - Little dinners - Cookery For Invalids - Every Day Meals - Hints on Cookery Good Plain Cookery - Handbook For The Breakfast Table - Weekly Telegraph Cookery Book - Our Dog Prin - Ways and Tricks of Animals
Lily's Letters from the Farm (USA)- Wives and Housewives (a story for the times) Papers on Cookery (no image) For Better For worse (no image)
Nelson's Home Comforts. Victorian Recipes
PREFACE encompassing all editions first to last.
Our objectives in offering this little book to the public is no less to introduce a number of articles of great utility and excellence than to give a number of good recipes for general cookery, which cannot fail to be useful to the housekeeper.
With respect to the novelties which we have recently introduced, we have only to say that each one of them is the best of its kind, made of the best materials, and absolutely pure.
It is not too much to say, that for the first time, a jelly ready made, requiring only the addition of hot water, and of as fine a quality as can possible be made in any private kitchen, is now supplied.
Blanc-manges for invalids, most delicious, and nourishing, without any flavouring, merely requiring to be dissolved in hot water, and also for the first time being sent out by Messrs. Nelson. These blanc-manges, as will be seen by the recipes given, can be made into any of the most elaborate creams required for the table, with the slightest possible expenditure of time and trouble. Creams delicately flavoured with lemon and almond are also supplied, and are ready for use with the addition of milk or water.
Nelson's Gelatine have now been favourably known all over the world for nearly half-a-century, it is unnecessary to do more than observe that the efforts of the manufacturers are constantly direct to supply a perfectly pure article, always of the same strength and quality. When Russian isinglass was first introduced into this country the prejudices against its use on the part of our great-grandmothers, were violent and extreme; for these worthy ladies would not believe that some unknown substances, of the origin of which either they were ignorant or doubtful, could form an efficient substitute for the familiar calves' feet, and cow heels, from which they had always been in the habit of making their jellies and blanc-mages. By degrees, however, it made its way, and at length superseded the old system entirely. The occasional fishy flavour detected in the very best Russian isinglass was always an objection to its use, and when the late Mr. George Nelson, the founder of the present firm of G. Nelson, Dale and Co., first introduced his Opaque Gelatine, it was seen at once that a great step in advance had been made in the dietetic economy. Nelson's Opaque Gelatine is prepared from the skins of the South American ox, and it is in every respect the purist gelatinous substance ever offered for sale, while it is only one-third the price of Russian isinglass. The popularity of this gelatine is demonstrated by the fact that the mills at Emscote cover nearly five acres.
In order to save the trouble of putting jelly through a strainer when required for invalids, Messrs. Nelson have introduced their Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and by their use a jelly enough for all ordinary purposes is made.
Lemonade and other beverages can be quickly made, and with less expense than by any other method, with Nelson's Citric acid and Essence of Lemon, and for these recipes are given.
Nelson's Lemon sponge, like their blanc-mange, supplied in tins, is a delicious novelty, and will be found to surpass any that can be made at home.
Nelson's Soups are deserving of the attention of every housekeeper, have an excellent flavour, both of meat and vegetables, are prepared by merely boiling the contents of the packet for a few minutes, and are so cheap as to be within everybody's means.
Those who have to cater for a family know how often a little soup will make up a dinner that would otherwise be insufficient; yet, because of the time and trouble required in the preparation, it is impossible to have it. In a case like this, or when a supplementary dish is unexpectedly required, Nelson's Soups are most useful. Although these Soups are all that can be desired, made with water according to the directions given with each packet, they can be utilised with great advantage for strengthening household stock.
For instance, the liquor in which the leg of mutton has been boiled, or of pork, if not too salt, can be at once, by using a packet or two of Nelson's Soup, converted into a delicious and nourishing soup, and at a cost surprisingly small. Or the bones of any joint can be made into stock, and after all the fat has been skimmed off, have a packet of Nelson's Soup added, in the same manner as in the directions.
Now that clear soup is so constantly required, and a thing of every-day use, Nelson's Extract of Meat will be found a great boon. With the addition of a little vegetable flavouring a packet of Extract will make a pint of soup as god and as fine as that produced, at much labour and expense, from fresh meat. With the judicious use of the liquor derived from boiling rabbits, fowl and fresh meat, an endless variety of soup may be made, by the addition of Nelson's Extract of Meat. some recipes are given by which first class-soups can be made in a short time, at very small cost, and with but little trouble. It may be as well to say that soaking for a few minutes in cold water facilitates the solution of the Extract of Meat.
Nelson's Beef Tea will be found of the highest value, supplying a cup of unequalled nourishment, combining all the constituents of fresh beef. No other preparation now before the public contains the most important element albumen in a soluble form, as well as much of the fibrine of the meat. The Beef Tea is also generally relished by invalids, and merely requires to be dissolved in boiling water.
Nelson’s Milk Lozenges have been prepared to meet a want long felt by physicians and nurses, that of providing a sweetmeat for children and invalids at once nourishing and delicious. Theses lozenges will be found invaluable for persons requiring a milk diet, and their portable form makes them a great convenience for travellers. For coughs and cases of throat irritation, Nelson’s Milk Lozenges will be found soothing and curative. The lozenges are composed solely of concentrated milk of the highest quality, and the purest gelatine.
Nelson’s Chocolate Lozenges are made with gelatine, milk and specially prepared cocoa, thus forming a nourishing and delicious sweetmeat.
Nelson's Bottled Jellies It is sometimes so difficult, if not impossible, to have a first-class jelly made in private kitchens, that we venture to think our BOTTLED JELLIES will be highly appreciated by all housekeepers. It is not too much to say that a ready-made jelly of the highest quality, and of the best and purest materials, requiring only the addition of hot water, is now, for the first time, supplied. Careful experiments, extending over a long period of time, have been required to bring this excellent and very useful preparation to its present state of perfection, and it is confidently asserted that no home-made jelly can surpass it in purity, brilliancy, or delicacy of flavour. All that is necessary to prepare the jelly for the table is to dissolve it by placing the bottle in hot water, and then to add the given quantity of water to bring it to a proper consistency. It is allowed to stand until on the point of setting, and is then put into a mould.
Nelson's Calf Foot, Lemon, Port, Sherry, Orange, and Cherry Jellies are now to be had of all first-class grocers, and are put up in bottles each containing sufficient of the concentrated preparation to make a quart, pint, or half-pint.
Nelson's Tablet Jellies are recommended for general use, are guaranteed of the purest and best materials, and are flavoured with the finest fruit essences. The Tablet Jellies are of so moderate a price as to be within the reach of all classes, and can be used as an every-day addition to the family bill of fare. They are not, however, intended as a substitute for high-class jellies, whether bottled or home-made. The Tablet Jellies used as directed in the recipes make, in a few minutes, creams of a most delicate kind, remarkable for smoothness of texture and fine flavour.
Nelson's Port, Sherry and Orange Wine Tablet Jellies have now been added to the list.
Nelson's Lemon Sponge supplied in tins, is a delicious novelty, and will be found to surpass any that can be made at home.
Nelson's Citric Acid and Pure Essence of Lemon In order to save the trouble of putting jelly through a strainer when required for invalids, we have introduced our Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and by their use a jelly clear enough for all ordinary purposes is made in a few minutes. LEMONADE and other beverages can be quickly made, and with less expense
than by any other method, by using Nelson's Citric Acid and Essence of Lemon, and for these recipes are given. Delicious beverages are also made with Nelson's Bottled Jellies.
Nelson's Pure Essence of Almonds and Vanilla These Extracts, like the Essence of Lemon, will be found of superior strength and flavour, and specially adapted for the recipes in this book.
Nelson's Gelatine Lozenges are not only a delicious sweetmeat, but most useful as voice lozenges, or in cases of sore or irritable throat. The flavour is very delicate and refreshing. Dissolved in water they make a useful beverage, and also a jelly suitable for children and invalids.
Nelson's Jelly-Jubes will be found most agreeable and nourishing sweetmeats, deliciously flavoured with fruit essences. They can be used as cough lozenges, will be found soothing for delicate throats, are useful for travellers, and may be freely given to children.
Nelson's Licorice Lozenges are not only a favourite sweetmeat, but in cases of throat irritation and cough are found to be soothing and curative.
Nelson's Albumen is the white of eggs carefully dried and prepared, so that it will keep for an indefinite length of time. It is useful for any purpose to which the white of egg is applied, and answers well for clearing soup and jelly. When required for use, the albumen is soaked in cold water and whisked in the usual way.
Nelson's Extract of Meat The numerous testimonials which have been received as to the excellence of this preparation, as well as the great and universal demand for it, have afforded the highest satisfaction to us as the manufacturers, and have enabled us to offer it with increased confidence to the public. It is invaluable, whether for making soup or gravy, or for strengthening or giving flavour to many dishes; and it is not only superior to, but far cheaper than, any similar preparation now before the public. Now that clear soup is so constantly required, and a thing of every-day use, Nelson's Extract of Meat will be found a great boon. With the addition of a little vegetable flavouring, a packet of the Extract will make a pint of soup as good and as fine as that produced, at much labour and expense, from fresh meat. With a judicious use of the liquor derived from boiling fowls, rabbits, and fresh meat, an endless variety of soup may be made, by the addition of Nelson's Extract of Meat. Some recipes are given by which first-class soups can be prepared in a short time, at a very small cost, and with but little trouble. It may be as well to say that soaking for a few minutes in cold water facilitates the solution of the Extract of Meat.
New Zealand Mutton For information respecting this meat, and the great advantage as well as economy of its use.
Nelson's Tinned Meats known as the "Tomoana Brand," are prepared at the works of NELSON BROS., LIMITED, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, from the finest cattle of the country. Messrs. NELSON specially recommend their "Pressed Mutton and Green Peas," "Haricot Mutton," and "Pressed Corned Mutton." The "Stewed Kidneys" will be found of a quality superior to any articles of the kind now in the market, while the price places them within the reach of all classes of consumers.
Nelson's Granulated Jellies are made in all the above flavours, and can be used in the same way as the Tablet Jellies.
Cookery For Invalids Special recipes are given under this head.
Nelson's Bottled Concentrated Jellies It is sometimes so difficult, if not impossible, to have a first-class jelly made in a private kitchen, but we venture to think our Bottled Concentrated Jellies will be highly appreciated by all house-keepers. It is not too much to say that a ready-made jelly of the highest quality, and of the best and purest materials, requiring only the addition of hot water, is now for the first time supplied. Careful experiments extending over along period of time, have been required to bring this excellent and very useful preparation to its present state of perfection, and it is confidently asserted that no home-made jelly can surpass it in purity, brilliancy or delicacy of flavour. All that is necessary to prepare the jelly for the table is it dissolve it by placing the bottle in hot water, and then to add the given quantity of water to bring it to the proper consistency. It is allowed to stand until on the point of setting, and is then put into a mould.
Nelson's Bottled Calf Foot, Lemon, Port, Sherry, Orange, and Cherry Jellies are now to be had of all first-class grocers, and are put up in bottles each containing sufficient of the concentrated preparation to make a quart, pint, or half-pint.
Nelson's Creams These creams have gained much appreciation, not only for their high quality, but for the readiness with which they can be made, and their cheapness. All that is necessary to produce a high-class cream is to dissolve the contents of a packet of these creams in hot water or cream. the creams are flavoured, variously, with lemon, orange, Vanilla, and Raspberry, and can be made in great variety by recipes given.
Hints on Cookery for Invalids and special recipes are given under this head.
Nelson’s “Hipi” (Pronounced Heapy) is the Maori word for sheep. It is also the name of a Pure Mutton Essence, prepared by Nelson’s Brothers, Limited, in New Zealand, from the lean of those sheep which are too large to freeze for the British Market, and is sold by G. Nelson, Dale and Co., Limited, London.
Analysis by experts of the first authority has established the high nutrient value of “Hipi,” and experience has proved that the ratio of these nutrient substances to mere stimulating properties is very satisfactory. The quality of “Hipi” is so excellent that, although it contains no chemical or artificial preservative, it will keep good for at least a week after being exposed to the air.
“Hipi” is different in character and taste from the well-known Extracts of Beef, has the fine flavour and properties of mutton broth, and is free from any objectionable indication of having been over-heated or burnt in the preparation. This delicacy of flavour makes “Hipi” of exceptional value for invalids. It provides an entire change from Beef Extracts, and is, at the same time, more digestible and nourishing qualities that cannot be over estimated.
“Hipi” is most welcome in the kitchen, its perfect flavour rendering it invaluable for soups, gravies, savoury jellies, etc., for which recipes are given. With no more trouble than is involved in dissolving “Hipi” in hot water, and adding a little Nelson’s Gelatine, excellent clear soup can be made at a much less cost than from fresh meat. By the judicious use of “Hipi,” a little gelatine and vegetable
flavouring, with the liquor in which fresh meat, fowls or rabbits have been boiled, an endless variety of good soup can be made.
“Hipi” is the cheapest first-class Meat Essence now offered to the public, and this, after quality, is a point of the greatest importance.
Nelson’s Hipi Lozenges are now offered for the use of those persons who require a substitute for their ordinary diet when on a journey or unable to procure a good meal. These Meat Lozenges are portable and nourishing, have all the delicacy of the original “Hipi” preparation, and, being free from added salt, will not provoke thirst. Invalids, cyclists, and travellers will, for these reasons, find “Hipi” Lozenges invaluable.
N.B. It is necessary to call attention to the fact that in all the following recipes in which Nelson's Gelatine and Specialities are used, the quantities are calculated for their manufactures only, the quality and strength of which may be relied upon for uniformity.
BEEF AND ONION SOUP.
A pint of very good soup can be made by following the directions which accompany each tin of Nelson's Beef and Onion Soup, viz. to soak the contents in a pint of cold water for fifteen minutes, then place over the fire, stir, and boil for fifteen minutes. It is delicious when combined with a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, thus producing a quart of nutritious and appetising soup.
NELSON'S MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.
Soaked in cold water for a quarter of an hour, and then boiled for fifteen minutes, Nelson's Mulligatawny Soup is very appetising and delicious. It should be eaten with boiled rice; and for those who like the soup even hotter than that in the above preparation, the accompanying rice may be curried. In either case the rice should be boiled so that each grain should be separate and distinct from the rest.
BEEF, LENTIL, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.
Pour one quart of boiling water upon the contents of a tin of Nelson's Soup of the above title, stirring briskly. The water must be boiling. A little seasoning of salt and pepper may be added for accustomed palates. This soup is perfectly delicious if prepared as follows: Cut two peeled onions into quarters, tie them in a muslin bag, and let the soup boil for twenty minutes with them. Take out the bag before serving the soup.
BEEF, PEA, AND VEGETABLE SOUP.
The directions printed on each packet of Nelson's Beef, Pea, and Vegetable Soup produce a satisfactory soup, but even this may be improved by the addition of the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat and a handful of freshly-gathered peas. It is perhaps not generally known that pea-pods, usually thrown away as useless, impart a most delicious flavour to soup if boiled fast for two or three hours in a large saucepan, strained, and the liquor added to the soup, stock, or beef tea.
Boil a minced onion, a small bit of celery and a sharp apple, quartered, in three pints of water until tender. Put all through a sieve, add a teacupful of thick tomato pulp, half-an-ounce of Nelson's "Hipi" and a handful of freshly gathered peas. It is perhaps not generally known that pea-pos, usually thrown away as useless, impart a most delicious flavour to the soup if boiled fast in a large saucepan, strained, and the liquor added to the soup, stock, or beef tea. "This was introduced in the twenty second edition of 1903 and was the first and only addition to the soup recipes attributed to Mary Hooper noted copies of Nelson's Home comforts"
BEEF TEA AS A SOLID.
Soak the contents of a tin of Nelson's Beef Tea in a gill of water for ten minutes. Add to this the third of an ounce packet of Nelson's Gelatine, which has been soaked for two or three hours in half-a-pint of cold water. Put the mixture in a stewpan, and stir until it reaches boiling-point. Then put it into a mould which has been rinsed with cold water. When thoroughly cold, this will turn out a most inviting and extremely nutritious dish.
MILK OR CHILDREN'S SOUP
Soak a packet of Nelson's Milk or Children's Soup for fifteen minutes in one pint of cold water. Then place in a stewpan and stir it over the fire until it boils. It will then be ready for use. For invalids this soup is excellent. It may be made additionally nutritious and sufficiently firm to turn out of a mould by adding half-an-ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, which has been soaked in a small teacupful of water for two or three hours. This makes a tempting pretty dish for invalids who are forbidden to take anything hot. "No longer published after the fifth edition circa 1883"
CLEAR VERMICELLI SOUP.
Boil two minced onions in a quart of the liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, skim well, and when the vegetables are tender strain them out. Pass the soup through a napkin, boil up, skim thoroughly, and when clear add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, stirring until dissolved. Boil two ounces of vermicelli paste in a pint of water until tender. Most shapes take about ten minutes. Take care that the water boils when you throw in the paste, and that it continues to do so during all the time of cooking, as that will keep the paste from sticking together. When done, drain it in a strainer, put it in the tureen, and pour the soup on to it.
Wash and scrape a large carrot, cut away all the yellow parts from the middle, and slice the red outside of it an inch in length, and the eighth of an inch thick. Take an equal quantity of turnip and three small onions, cut in a similar manner. Put them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter and a pinch of powdered sugar; stir over the fire until a nice brown colour, then add a quart of water and a teaspoonful of salt, and let all simmer together gently for two hours. When done skim the fat off very carefully, and ten minutes before serving add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a cabbage-lettuce cut in shreds and blanched for a minute in boiling water; simmer for five minutes and the soup will be ready. Many cooks, to save time and trouble, use the preserved vegetables, which are to be had in great perfection at all good Italian warehouses.
BROWN RABBIT SOUP CLEAR.
Fry a quarter of a pound of onions a light brown; mince a turnip and carrot and a little piece of celery; boil these until tender in three pints of the liquor in which a rabbit has been boiled, taking care to remove all scum as it rises; strain them out, and then pass the soup through a napkin. The soup should be clear, or nearly so, but if it is not, put it in a stewpan, boil and skim until bright; then throw in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, soaked for a few minutes; stir until dissolved; add pepper and salt to taste.
Half roast a hare, and, having cut away the meat in long slices from the backbone, put it aside to make an _entree_. Fry four onions; take a carrot, turnip, celery, a small quantity of thyme and parsley, half-a-dozen peppercorns, a small blade of mace, some bacon-bones or a slice of lean ham, with the body of the hare cut up into small pieces; put all in two quarts of water with a little salt. When you have skimmed the pot, cover close and allow it to boil gently for three hours, then strain it; take off every particle of fat, and having allowed the soup to boil up, add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and thicken it with a dessertspoonful of potato-flour; stir in two lumps of sugar, a glass of port wine, and season if necessary.
English cooks generally err in making both mulligatawny and curries too hot. It is impossible to give the exact quantity of the powder, because it varies so much in strength, and the cook must therefore be guided by the quality of her material. Mulligatawny may be made cheaply, and be delicious. The liquor in which meat or fowl has been boiled will make a superior soup, and fish-liquor will answer well. Slice and fry brown four onions, quarter, but do not peel, four sharp apples; boil them in three pints of stock until tender, then rub through a sieve to a pulp. Boil this up in the soup, skimming well; add the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and stir in two ounces of flour and the curry-powder, mixed smooth in half-a-pint of milk. Any little pieces of meat, fowl, game, or fish may be added as an improvement to the soup. Just before serving taste that the soup is well-flavoured; add a little lemon-juice or vinegar.
THIN MULLIGATAWNY SOUP.
To a quart of the liquor in which a fresh haddock has been boiled, add half-a-pint of water in which onions have been boiled. Stir into this, after it has been skimmed, and whilst boiling, the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and a teaspoonful of curry-powder; let it boil up; add the juice of half a lemon and serve.
BROWN ARTICHOKE SOUP.
Wash, peel, and cut into slices about half-an-inch thick two pounds of Jerusalem artichokes. Fry them in a little butter until brown; fry also brown half-a-pound of sliced onions. Put these to boil in two quarts of water with two turnips, a carrot sliced, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and one of pepper. When the vegetables are tender drain the liquor, set it aside to cool, and remove all fat. Pass the vegetables through a fine sieve to a nice smooth puree. Those who possess a Kent's "triturating strainer" will be able to do this much more satisfactorily, both as regards time and results, than by the old way of rubbing through a sieve. Put the liquor on to boil, dissolve in it according to the strength the soup is required to be the contents of one or two tins of Nelson's Extract of Meat, then add the vegetable puree, a lump or two of sugar, and if required, salt and pepper. Let it boil up and serve.
This soup is so often required for invalids, as well as for the table, that an easy and comparatively inexpensive method of preparing it cannot fail to be acceptable. Nelson's Beef Tea or Extract of Meat will be used instead of fresh beef, and Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle instead of live turtle. If convenient it is desirable to soak the dried turtle all night, but it can be used without doing so. Put it on to boil in the water in which it was soaked, in the proportion of one quart with a teaspoonful of salt to a quarter of a pound of the turtle. Add two or three onions peeled and quartered, a small bit of mace and sliced lemon-peel, and simmer gently for four or five hours, or until the turtle is tender enough to divide easily with a spoon. Stock of any kind may be used instead of water, and as the liquid boils away more should be added, to keep the original quantity. Herbs for the proper flavouring of the Turtle Soup are supplied by Bellis; these should be put in about an hour before the turtle is finished, and be tied in muslin. When done take out the turtle and divide it into neat little pieces; strain the liquor in which it was cooked, and having boiled it up, stir in the contents of two tins of Nelson's Extract of Meat, previously soaked for a few minutes. Mix smooth in a gill of cold water a teaspoonful of French potato-flour and of Vienna flour, stir into the soup, and when it has thickened put in the turtle meat; let it get hot through, add a wine-glassful of sherry, a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, and salt and pepper to taste, and serve at once. It is necessary to have "Bellis's Sun-dried Turtle," imported by T. K. Bellis, Jeffrey's Square, St. Mary Axe, London (sold in boxes), for this soup, because it is warranted properly prepared. An inferior article, got up by negroes from turtle found dead, is frequently sold at a low price; but it is unnecessary to say it is not good or wholesome.
MOCK TURTLE SOUP.
This, like real turtle soup, can be made of Nelson's Extract of Meat and Bellis's Mock Turtle Meat. Boil the contents of a tin of this meat in water or stock, salted and flavoured with vegetables and turtle herbs, until tender. Finish with Nelson's Extract of Meat, and as directed for turtle soup.
THICK OX-TAIL SOUP.
Cut an ox-tail into small pieces, put theses with a pinch of salt in enough cold water to cover and bring gently to the boil; strain off the water and wash the meat well; put it into a clean stewpan with six pints of good stock, four onions, a few strips of celery, three carrots, one turnip, two leeks, and some thyme, parsley and Bay leaves, tied up together with two blades of mace and about a dozen pepper-corns; let the whole boil up gently, then skim and simmer for four hours. When the meat is tender,strain the stock through a hair sieve, pick the meat away from the vegetables. Remove all the fat from the stock, put it in a pan and thicken it with two teaspoonfuls of good corn flour, first mixed with a little cold stock. Take out the vegetables, pound them, and add to the soup as soon as it boils up again; pass the whole through the tammy cloth, add the pieces of meat, a wineglass of sherry, and serve very hot. "Twenty Third edition addition after 1904"
Put one pint of dried green peas to soak in cold water for twenty-four hours, changing the water occasionally; melt three ounces of butter in a stewpan, add to it two large lettuces, cut up fine, four large onions and two leeks sliced thin, half a stick of celery, two large sprigs of green mint, the peas washed and dried. Fry all together on the side of the stove for about half-an-hour, then mix with them two ounces of pea flour and two quarts of stock, stir occasionally until it comes to the boil, then skim and let it cook slowly for about three hours, when the peas should be quite tender. Mix in the basin the yolks of four eggs with half-a-pint of cream, whip well together until smooth, pour it into the pea mixture, and rub it all through a very fine hair sieve or tammy cloth. Return the mixture to the pan and stir gently till it thickens, and serve when of the consistency of cream. "Twenty Third edition addition after 1904"
Take the giblets from a goose, chicken or turkey, clean the gizzards and cut into small pieces, cut the neck and the liver into lengths about 1 1/2 inches, skin and feet, and put all into a stewpan with cold water to cover and a pinch of salt; let it come slowly to the boil, then strain of and wash the pieces in clean cold water; put them into two quarts of stock, add three onions, a little celery, two leeks, four pepper-corns, and a blade of mace, three cloves and a little thyme, parsley, Bay Leaf, and marjoram; bring slowly to the boil, and let simmer for two hours; strain off, take out the meat from the vegetables, and set aside to serve in the soup; let the stock cool, and remove any fat from it; strain through a cloth into a clean pan, mix two dessertspoonfuls of corn flour with a glass of sherry, and put into the soup; stir till it thickens, then add the pieces of meat and serve. "Twenty Third edition addition after 1904"
Take the outer rind from three-quarters of a pound of Italian chestnuts, and put them into a large pan of warm water; as soon as this becomes too hot for the fingers to remain in it, take out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, immerse them in cold water, wipe, and weigh them. cover them with good stock, and stew them gently for rather more than three-quarters of an hour, or until they break when touched with a fork; drain them, and rub them through a fine sieve, reversed, add one quart of good stock, a seasoning of mace, cayenne, and salt, and stir often until the soup boils, then add a quarter of a pint of cream. The stock in which the chestnuts are boiled may be added in part, or the whole may be used if the sweetness is not objected to.
"Twenty Third edition addition after 1904"
GREEN PEA SOUP.
Put one-and-a-half pints of shelled peas in two quarts of water with a tablespoonful of salt and a piece of soda the size of the pea; let theses come to the boil, then strain off and put them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter, two onions sliced one lettuce cut up in lengths about one inch, and a pint-and-a-half of pea shells; tie up a bunch of herbs, such as thyme, parsley, bay leaf, and mint; fry al together for about ten minutes over a moderate fire. Add two quarts of stock and cook all together for about three-quarters-of-an-hour, strain off the stock, and rub the vegetables through a fine hair sieve. Mix half-a-pint of warm cream with the yolks of three eggs, one ounce of butter and a salt spoonful of caster sugar, then pour into the pea puree and mix well together; warm the soup again, but do not allow it to boil, then strain into the tureen and serve.
"Twenty Third edition addition after 1904"
For roast meat, merely dissolve, after a little soaking, a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in a pint of boiling water. For poultry or
game, fry two onions a light brown, mince a little carrot and turnip, put in half a teaspoonful of herbs, tied in muslin, and boil until tender, in a pint of water. Strain out the herbs, let the liquor boil up, stir in the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat, and if the gravy is required to be slightly thickened, add a small teaspoonful of potato-flour mixed smooth in cold water. For cutlets or other dishes requiring sharp sauce, make exactly as above, and just before serving add a little of any good piquant sauce, or pickles minced finely.
Soak in a small jar the contents of a tin of Nelson's Extract of Meat in rather less than a gill of cold water. Set the jar over the fire in a saucepan with boiling water, and let the extract simmer until dissolved. This is useful for strengthening soups and gravies, and for glazing ham, tongues, and other things.
LITTLE DISHES OF FISH.
The recipes we are now giving are suitable for dinner, supper, or breakfast dishes, and will be found especially useful for the latter meal, as there is nothing more desirable for breakfast than fish. We are constantly told that it is not possible to have fresh fish for breakfast, because it cannot be kept all night in the home larder. But we must insist that there is no greater difficulty in keeping fish than meat. Indeed, there is perhaps less difficulty, because fish can be left lying in vinegar, if necessary, whereas in the case of meat it cannot always be done.
We will suppose that it is necessary to use strict economy. It is as well to proceed on that supposition, because people can always be lavish in their expenditure, whereas it is not so easy to provide for the household at once well and economically. In many neighbourhoods fish is sold much cheaper late in the day than in the morning, and in this case the housekeeper who can buy overnight for the use of the next day has a great advantage. Suppose you get the tail of a cod weighing three pounds, as you frequently may, at a very small price in the evening, and use a part of it stuffed and baked for supper, you can have a dish of cutlets of the remainder for breakfast which will be very acceptable. We do not mean a dish of the cold remains, but of a portion of the fish kept uncooked, as it easily may be, as we have before said, by dipping it in vinegar. Or, you get mackerel. Nothing is better than this fish treated according to the recipe we give. Even so delicate a fish as whiting may, by a little management with vinegar, be kept perfectly well from one day to the other. Skinned whiting has very little flavour, and although when skilfully cooked in the usual way it is useful by way of change, the nourishment is much impaired by the removal of the skin. The same remark applies to soles. By frying fish un-skinned you get a dish of a different character to that of skinned fish, and one of which the appetite does not so soon tire.
Soles weighing from three-quarters of a pound to a pound are the most suitable size for frying whole. If it is desired to have the fish juicy and with their full flavour, do not have them skinned. The black side of the soles will not of course look so well, or be so crisp, as the white side, but this is of little consequence compared to the nourishment sacrificed in removing the skin. Have the soles scraped, wipe them, put a tablespoonful of vinegar in a dish, pass the fish through it, and let them lie an hour or more, if necessary all night, as the flavour is thus improved. Run a knife along the backbone, which prevents it looking red when cut. When ready to crumb the fish, lay them in a cloth and thoroughly dry them. Beat up the yolk of an egg with a very little of the white, which will be sufficient to egg a pair of soles; pass the fish through the egg on both sides, hold it up to drain; have ready on a plate a quarter of a pound of very fine dry crumbs, mixed with two ounces of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Draw the fish over the crumbs, first on one side, then on the other, and lay it gently on a dish, black side downwards, whilst you prepare another. Some people succeed better in crumbing fish by sifting the crumbs on to it through a very fine strainer after it is egged. When the fish are ready put them, black side downwards, into the frying-pan with plenty of fat, hot enough to brown a piece of bread instantaneously, move the pan about gently, and when the soles have been fried four minutes, put a strong cooking-fork into them near the head, turn the white side downwards, and fry three minutes longer. Seven minutes will be sufficient to fry a sole weighing three-quarters of a pound, and a pair of this weight is sufficient for a party of six persons. When the sole is done put the fork into the fish close to the head, hold it up and let all the fat drain away, lay it on a sheet of cap paper, and cover over with another sheet. Being thus quite freed from grease, of a rich golden brown, crisp, and with an even surface, lay the fish on the dish for serving, which should have on it either a fish-paper or a napkin neatly folded. A well-fried sole is best eaten without any sauce, but in deference to the national usage, butter sauce, or melted butter, may be served with it.
FRIED SOLE A LA COLBERT.
Wash, trim, and dry the sole; then split the underneath fillets straight down with the point of the knife, break the bone about an inch from the tail and head, season the inside with salt and pepper; flour the fish then dip it in whole beaten-up ray egg and in bread crumbs; put into boiling fat to fry about ten minutes until a nice golden brown colour. when cooked take it from the fat and with a fork take out the bone from the centre, and fill in the space with Maitre d'Hotel butter; place the fish on the dish with the split side up. "Published in the the twenty third edition after 1904"
It is better for the cook to fillet the soles, for there is often much waste when it is done by the fishmonger. Having skinned the fish, with a sharp knife make an incision down the spine-bone from the head to the tail, and then along the fins; press the knife between the flesh and the bone, bearing rather hard against the latter, and the fillets will then be readily removed. These can now be dressed in a variety of ways; perhaps the most delicate for breakfast is the following.
"No longer published after the twenty second edition circa 1903"
FILLETS OF SOLE SAUTES.
Having dried the fillets, divide them into neat pieces two or three inches long; dip them in the beaten yolk of egg, and then in seasoned bread-crumbs. Make a little butter hot in the frying-pan, put in the fillets and cook them slowly until brown on one side, then turn and finish on the other.
FILLETS OF SOLE FRIED.
These may either be rolled in one piece or divided into several, as in the foregoing recipe. In either case egg and crumb them thoroughly, place them in the wire-basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the fillets on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, and serve as hot as possible. All kinds of flat fish can be filleted and cooked by these recipes, and will usually be found more economical than serving the fish whole. It is also economical to fillet the tail-end of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either fry or saute, as may be preferred.
FILLETS OF SOLE WITH LOBSTER.
Thin and fillet a pair of soles, each weighing about a pound. Roll the fillets, secure them with thread, which remove before serving; put them in a stewpan with two ounces of sweet butter, cover closely, and allow them to cook at a slow heat for twenty minutes or until tender, taking care to keep them from getting brown. Prepare a sauce by boiling a quarter of a pound of veal cutlet and the bones of the fish in half-a-pint of water. When reduced to a gill, strain and take off all fat from the sauce, thicken either with fine flour or "Rizine," put it into the stewpan with the fish, and allow it to stand for a quarter of an hour without boiling. Mince or cut in small pieces either the meat of a small fresh lobster, or half a flat tin of the best brand of preserved lobster. Make this hot by putting it in a jam pot standing in a saucepan of boiling water. Take up the fish, carefully pour the sauce round, and place on the top of each fillet some of the lobster.
Small whiting answer well for this purpose. Tie them round, the tail to the mouth, dip them in dissolved butter, lightly sprinkle with pepper and salt, strew them with pale raspings, put them in a baking-dish with a little butter, and bake in a quick oven for a quarter of an hour.
A cheap and excellent dish is made by filleting the tail of cod, egging and crumbing the pieces and frying them. Get about a pound and a half of the tail of a fine cod; with a sharp knife divide the flesh from the bone lengthways, cut it into neat pieces as nearly of a size as you can, and flatten with a knife. Dip in egg, then in crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. It is best to fry the cutlets in the wire-basket in plenty of fat, but if this is not convenient they can be done in the frying-pan; in any case, they should be done quickly, so that they may get crisp.
FRIED COD ROE (SOFT).
There is a great difference in cod roe, and only those of fine fish are worth cooking. By this we do not mean that the roe need be large, but that it must be in prime condition. Some roes weigh from three to four pounds, and cost from eight pence to a shilling. This would make an excellent fish dish for twelve persons, at a cost, including sauce, of about eighteen-pence. If the whole of the roe is not required on one day, it will keep either un-boiled after being dipped in vinegar, or boiled, as may be most convenient. An excellent liquor for fish soup, or mulligatawny, can be made of cod roe, and there is nothing better in which to stew oysters. Curried roe, also is excellent. Divide the roe into portions about the size and shape of a calf's sweetbread, boil it for ten minutes in water well salted, with just enough vinegar to flavour it, and a shake of pepper. Take up the roe and drain it. Beat up an egg yolk and white, in a basin, and pass the roe through it so as to touch it in every part; have ready some very finely sifted bread-crumbs mixed with half their weight of fine flour, and highly seasoned with pepper and salt, and pass the egged roe through them, taking care that it is nicely covered. Have ready some frying fat at the browning temperature and put the roe in; if there is not enough to cover it, it must be fried first on one side and then on the other; but by far the easiest and best way is to use the wire basket and plenty of fat. Butter sauce and anchovy may be eaten with the fried roe, or plain butter sauce with a little lemon juice and cayenne is excellent.
"No longer published after the fifth edition circa 1883"
This excellent fish is not, strange to say, often seen on good tables. Probably the reason for this is that it is mistaken for fresh-water bream, a somewhat tasteless fish very full of bones. Sea bream is a fish of so fine a flavour that it ought to rank, in this particular next to salmon. It can either be boiled in the same way as haddock, or be baked and stuffed, and is incomparable dressed by the following recipe, given by Yarrell in his "History of British Fishes:" "When thoroughly cleaned the fish should be wiped dry, but none of the scales should be taken off. In this state it should be broiled, turning it often, and, if the skin cracks, flour it a little to keep the outer case entire. When on the table, the whole skin and scales turn off without difficulty: and the muscle beneath, saturated with its own natural juices, which the outside covering has retained, will be found of good flavour. "No longer published after the fifth edition circa 1883"
When the fish are split open, wipe them carefully with a dry cloth, sprinkle them lightly with pepper and salt, and hang them up in a cool place with plenty of air until the next morning. Take care to keep the fish open when you hang them up. When ready to cook the mackerel, dissolve half-an-ounce of butter or bacon fat for each fish, and pass them through it on both sides. Lay them on a gridiron over a very slow fire, turn them frequently, basting now and then with a little butter. When the fish is last turned sprinkle finely-chopped parsley on the inner side, and then serve very hot. The fish must be very slowly cooked, and they will take at least twenty minutes. If put over a fierce fire mackerel is rendered hardened and indigestible, and the fish itself is unjustly blamed, but if the above recipe is followed a most delicious dish will be produced.
"No longer published after the twelfth edition 1891"
After the sprats are washed wipe them dry in a cloth, sprinkle a little salt over and let them lie for an hour, put them on paper with flour and turn them about until lightly coated with it. Throw into a wire-frying basket as many as will cover the bottom of it, plunge it into the hot fat and keep gently moving the basket until the fish are crisp. When the sprats are done turn them onto a sheet of paper to free them from grease, and serve immediately with cayenne, cut lemon, and brown bread-and-butter.
"No longer published after the twelfth edition 1891"
Cut the head not quite through to the backbone, twist it and waste will come with it. this can be done for the other recipes if preferred to have the inside of the sprats cleaned. Put the fish, when all are done, into a bowl, pour boiling water over, cover with a plate, and let them lie for a few minutes. The skin and bones being removed, take the flesh, pound it in a mortar, mix it with pepper, salt, and a very little fresh butter. Press it into a jar, which set in a saucepan of water over the fire until the fish paste is hot through. Take it out of the water, stir now and again until it is cold, press into small pots, and cover with clarified butter.
"No longer published after the fifth edition circa 1883"
Take care the fish is well cleaned, without being split. Two or three hours before cooking, lightly sprinkle with salt and pepper; when ready to cook, wipe and flour the herrings. Have ready in the frying-pan as much fat at the proper temperature as will cover the herrings. Cook quickly at first, then moderate the heat slightly, and fry for ten to twelve minutes, when they should be crisp and brown. When done, lay them on a dish before the fire, in order that all fat and the fish-oil may drain from them; with this precaution, fried herrings will be found more digestible than otherwise they would be.
"No longer published after the fourteenth edition 1893"
Properly done, souché is the most delicate and nourishing form of fish cookery, and it is suitable for nearly all kinds of fish when filleted. The mistakes of putting too much water and boiling fast should be carefully avoided. For flounder souché, put the heads and fins of three or four small flounders into a sauté pan with sufficient water to cover them, a tiny bit of mace, a few sprigs of parsley, with one of thyme, a bay-leaf, and a small piece of carrot. Simmer for an hour. Remove the bones, herbs, etc, season the liquor with a little salt, put in the flounders, boil very gently for half an hour. Just be fore serving add a handful of picked parsley, allow the souché to boil up, and serve, with the liquor, in a deep dish. Brown bread and butter and a cut of lemon should accompany this dish. "First published in the the fifteenth edition 1894"
Choose the herrings with soft roes. Having scraped and washed them, cut off the heads, split open, take out the roes, and cleanse the fish. Hold one in the left hand, and, with thumb and finger of the right, press the backbone to loosen it, then lay flat on the board and draw out the bone; it will come out whole, leaving none behind. Dissolve a little fresh butter, pass the inner side of the fish through it, sprinkle pepper and salt lightly over, then roll it up tightly with the fin and tail outwards, roll it in flour and sprinkle a little pepper and salt, then put a small game skewer to keep the herring in shape. Have ready a good quantity of boiling fat; it is best to do the herrings in a wire-basket, and fry them quickly for ten minutes. Take them up and set them on a plate before the fire, in order that all the fat may drain from them. Pass the roes through flour mixed with a sufficient quantity of pepper and salt, fry them brown, and garnish the fish with them and crisp parsley. A difficulty is often felt in introducing herrings at dinner on account of the number of small bones in them, but this is obviated by the above method of dressing, as with care not one bone should be left in.
GALANTINE OF FISH.
Procure a fine large fresh haddock and two smaller, of which to make forcemeat. Take off the head and open the large fish. Carefully press the meat from the backbone, which must be removed without breaking the skin; trim away the rough parts and small bones at the sides. Cover the inside of the fish with a layer of forcemeat, and at intervals place lengthways a few fillets of anchovies, between which sprinkle a little lobster coral which has been passed through a wire sieve; fold the haddock into its original form, and sew it up with a needle and strong thread. Dip a cloth in hot water, wring it as dry as possible, butter sufficient space to cover the fish, then fold it up, tie each end, and put a small safety pin in the middle to keep it firm. Braise the galantine for an hour in stock made from the bones of the fish. Let it stay in the liquor until cold, when take it up and draw out the sewing thread. Reduce and strain the liquor, mix with cream and aspic jelly, or Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in the proportion of half-an-ounce to a pint. When this sauce is on the point of setting, coat the galantine with it, sprinkle with little passed lobster coral, dish in a bed of shred salad, tastefully interspersed with beetroot cut in dice and dipped in oil and vinegar. To make the forcemeat, pound the fillets of the small haddocks till fine, then work in about half its quantity of bread panada, an ounce of butter, and the fillets of two anchovies; season with salt and pepper, mix in one egg and a yolk, pass through a wire sieve, and work into it a gill of cream. "First published in the the thirteenth edition 1892"
FILLETS OF SOLE EN ASPIC.
Aspic jelly, or meat jelly, may be made very good, and at a moderate cost, by boiling lean beef or veal in water with a little vegetable and spice. To make it according to the standard recipes is so expensive and tedious that few persons care to attempt it. The following directions will enable a cook to make an excellent and clear aspic. Cut two pounds of lean beefsteak or veal cutlet into dice, put it on in two quarts of cold water, and as soon as it boils, take off the scum as it rises. Let it simmer gently for half-an-hour; then add four onions, a turnip, carrot, small bundle of sweet herbs, blade of mace, half-a-dozen white peppercorns, and when it has again boiled for an hour strain it through a napkin. Let it stand until cold, remove all the fat, boil it up, and to a quart of the liquor put an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, previously soaked in cold water. Add salt and a pinch of cayenne pepper, and when the jelly is cool stir in the whites and shells of two eggs well beaten. Let the jelly boil briskly for two minutes, let it stand off the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a jelly-bag and use as directed. Take the fillets of a pair of large thick soles, cut them into neat square pieces, leaving the trimmings for other dishes, and lay them in vinegar with a little salt for an hour. As they must be kept very white the best French vinegar should be used. Boil the fillets gently in salted water, with a little vinegar, till done; take them up and dry them on a cloth. Have ready some picked parsley and hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters; arrange these neatly at the bottom of a plain mould so as to form a pretty pattern. Pour in very gently enough jelly to cover the first layer, let it stand until beginning to set, then put another layer of fish, eggs, and parsley, then more jelly, and so on until the mould is full. When done set the mould on ice, or allow it to stand some hours in a cold place to get well set. Turn it out, ornament with parsley, beetroot, and cut lemon.
Clean and boil the eels in water highly seasoned with pepper and salt, an onion, bay-leaf, a clove, and a little vinegar. When the eels are done enough, slip out the bones and cut them up into pieces about two inches long. Take the liquor in which the fish is boiled, strain it, let it boil in the stewpan without the lid, skimming it until it becomes clear. Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine to each half-pint of the fish gravy, and boil together for a minute, let it then stand until cool. Arrange the pieces of eel tastefully in a plain mould with small sprigs of curled parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs, and, if you like, a fillet or two of anchovies cut up into dice. When all the fish is thus arranged in the mould, pour the jelly in very gently, a tablespoonful at a time, in order not to disturb the solid material. Let the mould stand in cold water for seven or eight hours, when it can be turned out. Ornament with parsley, lemon, and beetroot.
Take off the beards and hard white parts from six fine, fat oysters. Fill a tablespoon nearly full of batter, and put in one oyster, drop each, as you do it into a stewpan half full of fat at a temperature of 430 deg f , or that which will brown instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make the batter, mix two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water, stir in a tablespoonful of dissolved butter or a fine oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt and pepper; when ready to use, beat the white of the egg to a strong froth, and mix with it. Do not fry more than two fritters at once; as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or ornamental dish paper. If the recipe is closely followed, the fritters will be light, crisp, delicate morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides a very pretty dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take care the parsley is thoroughly dry, put it into a small frying-basket, and immerse it in hot fat, when it should instantly become crisp, turn it on to paper and serve. "First published in the the twenty first edition 1900"
Boil in salted water (a dessertspoonful to each quart), when the water boils lay in the fish and let it cook ten minutes for each pound. When done take it up, dish it nicely, and serve with Hollandaise lobster, anchovy cream, or any sauce preferred. Garnish with sliced cucumber and parsley. "Published in the the twenty third edition after 1904"
FILLET OF SALMON A LA MORNY.
Scale and cut the salmon into slices about an inch thick, and place in a well-buttered pan with one or two onions sliced, a bunch of herbs, and six peppercorns, cover it over with any fish stock, and let boil very gently for about fifteen minutes. Then take up the fish and keep hot; fry two ounces of butter and three ounces of flour in a pan, taking care that it does not discolour, and to this add about half-a-pint of the stock in which the salmon has been boiled, stir all this together until it boils, then ass the juice of half a lemon, a gill of cream and two ounces of parmesan cheese freshly grated; stir this again until it boils, then rub through a fine hair sieve or put through the tammy cloth, dish the salmon up and pour the sauce all over it.
"Published in the the twenty third edition after 1904"
Remove the meat carefully from two good sized lobsters, cut into inch lengths; make half a gill if good olive oil very hot in a stewpan, add the lobster, chop a medium sized onion very fine, one sound green pepper, half a clove, a sound garlic, and add the lobster, cook for five minutes, gently stirring meanwhile, season with salt and half a salt spoonful of red pepper, adding also half a wine-glassful of white wine, reduce for ten minutes, then add one gill of tomato sauce, and one medium sized peeled tomato, cut in dice shape, and cook for two minutes longer, gently stirring meanwhile; serve in a deep, very hot dish.
"Published in the the twenty third edition after 1904"
FILLET OF HADDOCK FRIED.
Cut the fillets into neat pieces, egg and crumb them thoroughly, place them in the wire-basket as you do them, which immerse in fat hot enough to crisp bread instantly. When done, put the fillets on paper to absorb the grease clinging to them, and serve as hot as possible. All kinds of fish can be filleted and cooked by theses recipes, and will usually be found more economical than serving the fish whole. It is also economical to fillet the tail-end of cod, salmon, and turbot, and either fry or saute, as may be preferred.
"Published in the the twenty third edition after 1904"
LITTLE DISHES OF MEAT.
In this chapter a number of useful and inexpensive dishes are given, which will serve either as breakfast dishes, _entrees_, or for invalids, and which may, in the hands of an intelligent cook, serve as models for many others. As will be seen, it is not so much a question of expense to provide these little tasty dishes as of management. In all the following recipes for little dishes of mutton, it will be found a great advantage to use New Zealand Meat.
A good cook will never be embarrassed by having too much cold meat on hand, because she will be able by her skill so to vary the dishes that the appetites of those for whom she caters will never tire of it. Even a small piece of the loin of mutton may be served in half-a-dozen different ways, and be relished by those who are tired of the mutton-chop or the plain roast.
Taken from the neck, mutton cutlets are expensive, but those from the loin will be found not only convenient, but to answer well at a smaller cost. First remove the under-cut or fillet from about two pounds of the best end of a loin of mutton, cut off the flap, which will be useful for stewing, and it is especially good eaten cold, and then remove the meat from the bones in one piece, which divide with the fillet into cutlets about half-an-inch thick. Egg them over and dip them in well-seasoned bread-crumbs, fry them until a nice brown, and serve with gravy made from the bones and an onion. This way of cooking the loin is much more economical than in chops, because with them the bones and flap are wasted, whereas in cutlets all is used up.
To stew the flap, put it in a stewpan, the fat downwards, sprinkle pepper and salt, and slice an onion or two over, and set it to fry gently in its own fat for an hour. Take up the meat, and put half-a-pint of cold water to the fat, which, when it has risen in a solid cake, take off, mix a little flour with the gravy which will be found beneath the fat, add pepper, salt, and some cooked potatoes cut in slices. Cut the meat into neat squares; let it simmer gently in the gravy with the potatoes for an hour.
ROULADES OF MUTTON.
Remove the fillet from a fine loin of mutton, trim away every particle of skin, fat, and gristle. Flatten the fillet with a cutlet-bat, and cut it lengthways into slices as thin as possible; divide these into neat pieces about three inches long. Sprinkle each with pepper, salt, and finely-chopped parsley, roll them up tightly, then dip in beaten egg, and afterwards in finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with an equal quantity of flour and highly seasoned with pepper and salt. As each roulade is thus prepared place it on a game-skewer, three or four on each skewer. Dissolve an ounce of butter in a small frying-pan, and cook the roulades in it.
Cut neat thin slices from a leg of either roasted or boiled mutton, dip them in yolk of egg and in fine dry bread-crumbs to which a little flour, pepper, and salt have been added. Heat enough butter in a small frying-pan to just cover the bottom, put in the slices of mutton and cook them very slowly, first on one side then on the other, until they are brown. Garnish the dish on which the mutton is served with some fried potatoes or potato chips.
Put a little butter or bacon fat in the frying-pan, sprinkle pepper and salt over slices of cold mutton, and let them get hot very slowly. The mutton must be frequently turned, and never allowed to fry. When turned in the pan for the last time sprinkle a little chopped parsley on the upper side; remove the slices carefully on to a hot dish, pour the fat in the pan over, and serve.
COLD MUTTON POTTED.
Cut up the mutton, being careful to free it from all sinew and skin; chop or pound it with half its weight of cooked bacon until it is as fine as desired. Season with a little pepper, salt, and allspice, put it into a jar, which set in a saucepan of water over the fire until the meat is hot through. When taken up stir occasionally until cool, then press it into little pots, and pour clarified butter or mutton fat over the top. If liked, a little essence of anchovy may be added to the seasoning.
Mince a quarter of a pound of underdone mutton, taking care to have it free from skin and fat. Mix with it a tablespoonful of rich gravy that which is found under a cake of dripping from a joint is particularly suitable for this purpose--add a few drops of essence of anchovy, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and a small teaspoonful of minced parsley. If necessary add salt. Line four patty-pans with puff paste, divide the mutton into equal portions and put it into the pans, cover each with a lid of paste, and bake in a quick oven for half-an-hour.
Having carefully washed the brain, boil it very fast, in order to harden it, in well-seasoned gravy. When it is done, take it out of the gravy and set it aside until cold. Cut it either in slices or in halves, dip each piece in egg, then in bread-crumbs well seasoned with dried and sifted parsley, pepper, and salt, fry them in a little butter until brown. The gravy having become cold, take off the fat, and boil it in a stewpan without a lid until it is reduced to a small quantity; pour it round the brain, and serve.
Carefully wash an ox brain, and boil it for a quarter of an hour in well-seasoned stock. When the brain is cold, cut it into slices as thin as possible, dip each of them in batter, drop them as you do them into a stewpan half-full of fat at a temperature of 430 deg., or that which will brown instantly a piece of bread dipped into it. To make the batter, mix two large tablespoonfuls of fine flour with four of cold water, stir in a tablespoonful of dissolved butter or of fine oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt and pepper; when ready to use, beat the white of the egg to a strong froth, and mix with it. Do not fry more than two fritters at once; as you take them up, throw them on paper to absorb any grease clinging to them, serve on a napkin or ornamental dish-paper. If this recipe is closely followed, the fritters will be light, crisp, delicate morsels, melting in the mouth, and form besides a very pretty dish. Garnish with fried parsley; take care the parsley is thoroughly dry, put it into a small frying-basket, and immerse it for an instant in the fat in which the fritters are to be cooked. Turn it out on paper, dry, and serve.
Let the butcher break up a marrow-bone. Take out the marrow in as large pieces as possible, and put them into a stewpan with a little boiling water, rather highly salted. When the marrow has boiled for a minute, drain the water away through a fine strainer. Have ready a slice of lightly-toasted bread, place the marrow on it, and put it into a Dutch oven before the fire for five minutes, or until it is done. Sprinkle over it a little pepper and salt, and a small teaspoonful of parsley, chopped fine. The toast must be served very hot.
CHICKEN IN ASPIC JELLY.
Cut the white part of a cold boiled chicken, and as many similar pieces of cold ham, into neat rounds, not larger than a florin. Run a little aspic jelly into a fancy border mould, allow it to set, and arrange a decoration of boiled carrot and white savoury custard cut crescent shape, dipping each piece in melted aspic. Pour in a very little more jelly, and when it is set place the chicken and ham round alternately, with a sprig of chervil, or small salad, here and there. Put in a very small quantity of aspic to keep this in place, then, when nearly set, sufficient to cover it. Arrange another layer, this time first of ham then of chicken, fix them in the same way, and fill up the mould with aspic jelly. When the dish is turned out fill the centre with cold green peas, nicely seasoned, and garnish round with chopped aspic and little stars of savoury custard. To make this, soak a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine in a gill of milk, dissolve it over the fire, and stir in a gill of thick cream, season to taste with cayenne pepper and salt, and, if liked, a little grate of nutmeg. Pour the custard on to a large dish, and when cold cut it into the required shapes.
VEAL CUTLETS IN WHITE SAUCE.
Cut six or seven cutlets, about half-an-inch thick, from a neck of veal, braise them in half-a-pint of good white stock with an onion, a small bunch of herbs, a bacon bone, and two or three peppercorns, until they are done. Let the cutlets get cool in the liquor, then drain them. Strain the liquor and make a white sauce with it; add a tablespoonful of thick cream and a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, dissolved in a gill of milk; season with salt and cayenne pepper, stirring occasionally until quite cold. Dip the cutlets in, smoothly coating one side, and before the sauce sets decorate them with very narrow strips of truffle in the form of a star. Cut as many pieces of cooked tongue or ham as there are cutlets, dish them alternately in a circle on a border of aspic, fill the centre with a salad composed of all kinds of cold cooked vegetables, cut with a pea-shaped cutter and seasoned with oil, vinegar, pepper, and salt. Garnish with aspic jelly cut lozenge shape and sprigs of chervil.
Like many other articles of diet, kidneys within the last ten years have been doubled in price, and are so scarce as to be regarded as luxuries. The method of cooking them generally in use is extravagant, and renders them tasteless and indigestible. Kidneys should never be cooked rapidly, and those persons who cannot eat them slightly underdone should forego them. One kidney dressed as directed in the following recipe will go as far as two cooked in the ordinary manner--an instance, if one were needed, of the economy of well-prepared food. Choose fine large kidneys, skin them and cut each the round way into thin slices: each kidney should yield from ten to twelve slices. Have ready a tablespoonful of flour highly seasoned with pepper and salt and well mixed together; dip each piece of kidney in it. Cut some neat thin squares of streaked bacon, fry them very slowly in a little butter; when done, put them on the dish for serving, and keep hot whilst you saute the kidneys, which put into the fat the bacon was cooked in. In about a minute the gravy will begin to rise on the upper side, then turn the kidneys and let them finish cooking slowly; when they are done, as they will be in three to four minutes, the gravy will again begin to rise on the side which is uppermost. Put the kidneys on the dish with the bacon, and pour over them a spoonful or two of plain beef gravy, or water thickened with a little flour, boiled and mixed with the fat and gravy from the kidneys in the frying-pan. If there is too much fat in the pan, pour it away before boiling up the gravy. Serve the kidneys on
a hot-water dish.
TINNED KIDNEYS WITH MUSHROOMS.
Dry a half-tin of champignons in a cloth, or, if convenient, prepare a similar quantity of fresh button mushrooms; add to these a few pieces of dried mushrooms, previously soaked for ten minutes in tepid water, put them into a stewpan with a slice of butter, and stir constantly for six minutes, then add two or three kidneys cut in small neat pieces, in the shape of dice is best, and continue stirring until the kidneys are hot through, taking care to do them slowly; at the last moment season with pepper and salt, and serve very hot. Garnish the dish with fried sippets of bread.
KIDNEYS WITH PICCALILLI SAUCE.
Take the kidneys out of the gravy, and cut them into six slices. Mix a small teaspoonful of curry powder with three teaspoonfuls of fine flour and a small pinch of salt. Dip each slice in this mixture, and when all are done put them in the frying-pan with a little butter, and let them get slowly hot through. When done, put the kidneys in the centre of a hot dish, and pour round them a sauce made as follows: Boil up the gravy of the kidneys, and stir into it sufficient minced piccalilli pickles to make it quite thick, add a teaspoonful of flour to a tablespoonful of the piccalilli vinegar, stir into the sauce, and when all has boiled up together, pour it round the kidneys.
These are quite an epicure's dish, and care must be taken to cook them slowly. Having skinned the kidneys (they must not be split or cut) dip them for a moment in boiling fat, place them on the gridiron over a slow fire, turning them every minute. They will take ten to fifteen minutes to cook, and will be done as soon as the gravy begins to run. Place them on a hot dish rubbed over with butter, salt and pepper them rather highly. It must be understood that kidneys thus cooked ought to have the gravy in them, and that when they are cut at table it should run from them freely and in abundance.
A really proper fry should consist not only of sweetbreads and liver, but of the heart, melt, brains, frill, and kidneys, each of which requires a different treatment. It is quite as easy to cook a fry properly as to flour and fry it hard and over-brown, as is too frequently done. Trim the sweetbreads neatly, and simmer them for a quarter of an hour in good white stock with an onion. When they are done take them up and put the brains in the gravy, allowing them to boil as fast as possible in order to harden them; let them get cold, then cut into slices, egg and bread-crumb them, and fry with the sweetbread in a little butter. After the brains are taken out of the gravy, put the slices of heart and melt in, and let them stew slowly until tender. When they are ready, flour them, and fry with the liver and frill until brown. Lastly, put the kidneys, cut in slices, into the pan, and very gently fry for about a minute. Shake a little flour onto the pan, stir it about until it begins to brown; then pour on to it the gravy, in which the sweetbreads, etc., were stewed, see it is nicely seasoned, and pour round the fry, which should be neatly arranged in the centre of the dish. Garnish with fried parsley.
These make an admirable breakfast dish, and can be partly prepared over-night. Trim and wash the sweetbreads, put them into a saucepan with sufficient well-flavoured stock to cover them, a minced onion and a sprig of lemon-thyme; boil gently for fifteen minutes, or a little longer if necessary. Take them up, drain, dip in egg and finely-sifted bread-crumbs mixed with a little flour, pepper, and salt. Fry very carefully, so as not to make it brown or hard, some small slices of bacon, keep warm whilst you fry the sweetbreads in the fat which has run from it, adding, if required, a little piece of butter or lard. For a breakfast dish, the sweetbreads should be served without gravy, but if for an entree the liquor in which they were stewed, with slight additions and a little thickening, can be poured round them in the dish. Calves' sweetbreads are prepared in the same manner as the above, and can either be fried, finished in a Dutch oven, or served white, with parsley and butter, or white sauce.
VEAL A LA CASSEROLE.
For this dish a piece of the fillet about three inches thick will be required, and weighing from two to three pounds. It should be cut from one side of the leg, without bone; but sometimes butchers object to give it, as cutting in this manner interferes with cutlets. In such a case a piece must be chosen near the knuckle, and the bone be taken out before cooking. For a larger party, a thick slice of the fillet, weighing about four pounds, will be found advantageous. With a piece of tape tie the veal into a round shape, flour, and put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, fry until it becomes brown on all sides. Then put half a pint of good gravy, nicely seasoned with pepper and salt, cover the stewpan closely, and set it on the stove to cook very slowly for at least four hours. When done, the veal will be exquisitely tender, full of flavour, but not the least ragged. Take the meat up, and keep hot whilst the gravy is reduced, by boiling without the lid of the saucepan, to a rich glaze, which pour over the meat and serve.
BROWN FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.
This is a brown fricassee of chicken, and is an excellent dish. No doubt the reason it is so seldom given is that, although easy enough to do, it requires care and attention in finishing it. Many of the best cooks, in the preparation of chickens for fricassee, cut them up before cooking, but we prefer to boil them whole, and afterwards to divide them, as the flesh thus is less apt to shrink and get dry. The chicken can be slowly boiled in plain water, with salt and onions, or, as is much better, in white broth of any kind. When the chicken is tender cut it up; take the back, and the skin, pinions of the wings, and pieces which do not seem nice enough for a superior dish, and boil them in a quart of the liquor in which it was boiled. Add mushroom trimmings, onions, and a sprig of thyme; boil down to one-half, then strain, take off all fat, and stir over the fire with the yolk of two eggs and an ounce of fine flour until thickened. Dip each piece of chicken in some of this sauce, and when they are cold pass them through fine bread-crumbs, then in the yolk of egg, and crumb again. Fry carefully in hot fat. Dish the chicken with a border of fried parsley, and the remainder of the gravy poured round the dish. This dish is generally prepared by French cooks by frying the chicken in oil, and seasoning with garlic; but unless the taste of the guests is well known, it is safer to follow the above recipe.
Put any of the meat of the breast or of the wings without bone into a frying-pan with a little fresh butter or bacon fat. Cook them very slowly, turning repeatedly; if the meat has not been previously cooked it will take ten minutes, and five minutes if a rechauffe. Sprinkle with pepper, and serve with mushrooms or broiled bacon. The legs of cooked chickens are excellent sautes, but they should be boned before they are put into the pan.
Put some cold potatoes chopped into the frying-pan with a little fat, stir them about for five minutes, then add to them an equal quantity of cold meat, cut into neat little squares, season nicely with pepper and salt, fry gently, stirring all the time, until thoroughly hot through.
Fry a minced onion in butter until lightly browned, cut up the flesh of two cooked chicken legs, or any other tender meat, into dice, mix this with the onions, and stir them together over the fire until the meat is hot through; sprinkle over it about a small teaspoonful of curry-powder, and salt to taste. Having thoroughly mixed the meat with the curry-powder, pour over it a tablespoonful of milk or cream, and stir over the fire until the moisture has dried up. Celery salt may be used instead of plain salt, and some persons add a few drops of lemon-juice when the curry is finished.
Croquettes of all kinds, fish, game, poultry or any delicate meats, can be successfully made on the following model: Whatever material is used must be finely minced or pounded. Care is required in making the sauce, if it is too thin it is difficult to mould the croquettes, and ice will be required to set it. Croquettes of game without any flavouring, except a little salt and cayenne, are generally acceptable as a breakfast dish. Preserved lobster makes very good croquettes for an entree, and small scraps of any kind can thus be made into a very good dish. Put one ounce of fine flour into a stewpan with half a gill of cold water, stir this over a slow fire very rapidly until it forms a paste, then add one ounce of butter, and stir until well incorporated. Mix in a small teaspoonful of essence of shrimps or anchovies, with a pinch of salt and pepper. Take the stewpan off the fire, and stir the yolk of an egg briskly into the sauce; thoroughly mix it with half-a-pound of pounded fish or meat, spread it out on a plate until it is cool. Flour your hands, take a small piece of the croquette mixture, roll into a ball or into the shape of a cork, then pass it through very finely-sifted and dried bread-crumbs. Repeat the process until all the mixture is used; put the croquettes as you do them into a wire frying-basket, which shake very gently, when all are placed in it, in order to free them from superfluous crumbs. Have ready a stewpan half-full of boiling fat, dip the basket in, gently moving it about, and taking care the croquettes are covered with fat. In about a minute they will become a delicate brown, and will then be done. Turn them on a paper to absorb any superfluous fat, serve them on a napkin or ornamental dish paper. No
more croquettes than will lie on the bottom of the basket without touching each other should be fried at once.
MEAT CAKES A L'ITALIENNE.
Mix very fine any kind of cold meat or chicken, taking care to have it free from skin and gristle, add to it a quarter of its weight of sifted bread-crumbs, a few drops of essence of anchovy, a little parsley, pepper and salt, and sufficient egg to moisten the whole. Flour your hands, roll the meat into little cakes about the size of a half-crown piece, then flatten the cakes with the back of a spoon, dip them in egg and fine bread-crumbs, and fry them in a little butter until lightly browned on the outside. Put them on a hot dish and garnish with boiled Italian paste.
RAISED PORK PIE.
Take a pound of meat, fat and lean, from the chump end of a fine fore-loin of pork, cut it into neat dice, mix a tablespoonful of water with it, and season with a large teaspoonful of salt and a small one of black pepper. To make the crust, boil a quarter of a pound of lard or clarified dripping in a gill and a half of water, and pour it hot on to one pound of flour, to which a good pinch of salt has been added. Mix into a stiff paste, pinch off enough of it to make the lid, and keep it hot. Flour your board and work the paste into a ball, then with the knuckles of your right hand press a hole in the centre, and mould the paste into a round or oval shape, taking care to keep it a proper thickness. Having put in the meat, join the lid to the pie, which raise lightly with both hands so as to keep it a good high shape, cut round the edge with a sharp knife, and make the trimmings into leaves to ornament the lid; and having placed these on, with a rose in the centre, put the pie on a floured baking-sheet and brush it over with yolk of egg. The crust of the pie should be cool and set before putting it into the oven, which should be a moderate heat. When the gravy boils out the pie is done. An hour and a half will bake a pie of this size. Make a little gravy with the bones and trimmings of the pork, and to half-a-pint of it add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine, and nicely season with pepper and salt. When the pie is cold remove the rose from the top, make a little hole, insert a small funnel, and pour in as much gravy as the pie will hold. Replace the rose on the top, and put the pie on a dish with a cut paper. if preferred, the pie can be made in a tin mould; but the crust is nicer raised by the hand. A great point to observe is to begin moulding the crust whilst it is hot, and to get it finished as quickly as possible.
VEAL AND HAM PIE.
Prepare the crust as for a pork pie. Cut a pound of veal cutlet and a quarter of a pound of ham into dice, season with a teaspoonful of salt and another of black pepper, put the meat into the crust, and finish as for pork pie. Add a quarter of an ounce of Nelson's Gelatine previously soaked in cold water, and then dissolved to a teacupful of gravy made from the veal trimmings.
When a pig is cut up in the country, sausages are usually made of the trimmings; but when the meat has to be bought, the chump-end of a fore-loin will be found to answer best. The fine well-fed meat of a full-grown pig, known in London as "hog-meat," is every way preferable to that called "dairy-fed pork." The fat should be nearly in equal proportion to the lean, but of course this matter must be arranged to suit the taste of those who will eat the sausages. If young pork is used, remove the skin as thinly as you can it is useful for various purposes and then with a sharp knife cut all the flesh from the bones, take away all sinew and gristle, and cut the fat and lean into strips. Some mincing-machines require the meat longer than others; for Kent's Combination, cut it into pieces about an inch long and half-an-inch thick. To each pound of meat put half a gill of gravy made from the bones, or water will do; then mix equally with it two ounces of bread-crumbs, a large teaspoonful of salt, a small one of black pepper, dried sage, and a pinch of allspice. This seasoning should be well mixed with the bread, as the meat will then be flavoured properly throughout the mass. Arrange the skin on the filler, tie it at the end, put the meat, a little at a time, into the hopper, turn the handle of the machine briskly, and take care the skin is only lightly filled. When the sausages are made, tie the skin at the other end, pinch them into shape, and then loop them by passing one through another, giving a twist to each as you do them. Sausage-skins, especially if preserved, should be well soaked before using, or they may make the sausages too salt. It is a good plan to put the skin on the water-tap and allow the water to run through it, as thus it will be well washed on the inside. Fifteen to twenty minutes should be allowed for frying sausages, and when done they should be nicely browned. A little butter or lard is best for frying, and some pieces of light bread may be fried in it when the sausages are done, and placed round the dish by way of garnish. Cooks cannot do better than remember Dr. Kitchener's directions for frying sausages. After saying, "They are best when quite fresh made," he adds: "put a bit of butter or dripping into a clean frying-pan; as soon as it is melted, before it gets hot, put in the sausages, and shake the pan for a minute, and keep turning them. Be careful not to break or prick them in so doing. Fry them over a very slow fire till they are nicely browned on all sides. The secret of frying sausages is to let them get hot very gradually; they then will not break if they are not stale. The common practice to prevent them bursting is to prick them with a fork, but this lets the gravy out."
Rediscovering the Gelatine Factory
The Gelatine Factory
A comprehensive account 1899
from Round About Warwick
Nelson's Emscote Mills 2009
T B Dale
The Nelson Brothers
George H Nelson
Sir E Montague Nelson
Cement Works at Stockton
A Visit to
Messrs. G. Nelson, Dale & Co. 1880
Tomoana New Zealand
Guy Montague Nelson
Charles St, Warwick
The Lawn at Emscote
packaging & adds
Swinborne v Nelson
Warwick Advertiser account 1953
Descendants of George Nelson
George Wyatt A city trade jubilee
Nelson's Heritage Walk
Gelatine and its uses
Mary Hooper Letters
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Nelson's Home Comforts
Wives and Housewives
Cookery for Invalids
Every Day Meals
Hints on Cookery
Good Plain Cookery
Handbook for the
Our Dog Prin
Ways & Tricks of Animals
Lily's Letters from the Farm
Charles Wentworth Wass
Round About Warwick
Fleur De Lys
The Pie Factory at Emscote
|Sir E Montague Nelson's Cuttings, Letters and Keepsakes Circa 1882||Randolph Turpin||
Cookery & Home Comforts
SMITH V NELSON 1904-5
Art & Photography
A Major Arcana
Compiled for the benefit of Warwickians and Others by Anthony James Leahy
A Walk in Warwick
Book Wanted Handbook For The Breakfast Table
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PAT Portable Appliance Testing
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